Politics, Policies, GHG Emissions and Climate / Política, Directrices, Emisiones y Clima (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)


Politics, Policies, GHGs and Climate / Políticas, Directrices, Emisiones y Clima (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)

In English, Politics and Policies have the same root but their separate meaning. That is not so easy in Spanish.

While Politics are based in the free thinking of any individual, Policies are implemented under law with the nature of being obligatory for all the individuals living in the political system assuming it.

I would introduce a brief comment about it for the Spanish readers.

En español los términos del inglés Politics and Policies no son conceptos que se puedan definir en base a la raíz del mismo término. Politics viene siendo lo que conocemos como comportamiento Político, y Policies vienen siendo las fórmulas que se diseñan para aplicar decisiones originadas de hacer “política”. Las “Policies” son fórmulas que se implantan para ser cumplidas. Así tenemos lo que en español conocemos como: “políticos” que en base a sus “planteamientos y estrategias políticos” formulan “políticas” para implantar como norma, directiva, ley, directrices, …

En conclusión, Política es un posicionamiento asociado a una forma libre de pensar y actuar que atañe a la postura que una persona o partido adopta para discutir cuestiones. Por ello, la política, personal o grupal, representa formas de pensar y de actuar con las cuales se puede estar de acuerdo o discrepar, bajo la libertad individual de poder mantener y ejercer cada uno sus propias convicciones políticas.

Sin embargo, las “Policies” o “Directrices” definidas por los políticos, son normas de cumplimiento obligado que atañen a todos los miembros de una sociedad regida por el sistema político que las implanta.

Estos conceptos diferencian entre la libertad de los planteamientos políticos personales pero otorga obligatoriedad de cumplimento a las directrices desarrolladas por aquellos ejerciendo política.

En ciencia, una persona puede tener una convicción sobre como funciona algo y sin embargo esta convicción personal no implica la obligatoriedad de que dicho mecanismo se rija por la opinión de dicha persona o grupo. Por ejemplo, opinar que el Sol gira alrededor de la Tierra no obliga al Sol a hacerlo.

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In science, a person can have a conviction about the mechanistic interpretation of a process. However, such personal or “sectorial” conviction does not imply the obligatory for that process to follow such  opinion. For example, having the conviction of that the Sun moves around the Earth does not force the Sun to do it.

Esta diferencia entre Normas Políticas y Normas Científicas hace que el impacto de la opinión de Políticos y la opinión de investigadores tengan repercusiones diferentes.

En ciencia se considera valioso contrastar diferente opiniones e interpretaciones sobre los datos y las metodologías, poniendo como prioridad alcanzar un consenso sobre el conocimiento de algo cuyo comportamiento es independiente de las opiniones personales.

En política, las opiniones personales en base a las cuales se implantan directrices afectan el comportamiento y el desarrollo del entorno en el que dictan.

La fuerza de la gravedad dicta el comportamiento de los objetos independientemente de nuestra opinión, pero el tipo y numero de objetos que nos rodean están marcados por las opiniones políticas y directrices que rigen el sistema social en el que vivimos.

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En Ciencia, estar equivocado no cambia el comportamiento de nuestro entorno, pero en Política, las directrices y leyes originadas por opiniones si cambian nuestro entorno y su comportamiento.

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In science, to hold an unaccurate position does not change the behaviour of our environments.  In contrast, with Politics, the directives and laws resultant from personal and partidary opinions do change our environment and its behaviour.

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Por todo ello, y debido a la condición de obligatoriedad en las directrices políticas definidas, estas requieren que su diseño e implementación estén:

Due to this relevant difference in the outcome from imposing directives driving the behaviour of our environment, the design and implementation of laws and normatives are requiered to:

  • basados en una documentación y análisis sólido, contrastado y validado por datos y expertos / be based on accurate and objective documentation followed by a solid analysis being contrasted and validated by data and experts in the field &
  • contextualizado en el marco general del desarrollo de la sociedad./ be contextualised in the general framework driving the development of the society implementing those laws and norms.

These questions bring into the table the policies brought to us about transforming full coverage of the automobile transportation into electric power. This decision of banning internal combustion in cars comes without being part of a strategic plan while all the rest of the sectors seem to be left unaddressed, being electric generation the sector with highest emission rates in countries such as EEUU, EU, India, China and Africa (emissions and losses in electric generation, transmission, distribution and use). Furthermore, not only the major source of emissions is being neglected its priority in detrimental of a sector with lower percentage in the pool of atmospheric emissions. But also, the particular sector of automobile diesel combustion, among all the forms of fossil combustion existent (industrial processing and heat use, household heating, maritime transportation, air transportation…) has been held responsible for conclusions reached without agreement in the scientific sector (see related article following the link here ” In a normal world it should not be possible to claim “car manufactures are responsible of 2700 premature mortalities” based on subjective claims Posted on 7 Nov2018 by Albert Boretti).

Are the priorities defined and the chain of intervention justified by the data available?

If we push full electric demand and dependency for the automobile use before improving the technology of  electric generation, transmission, distribution and use, we might end up increasing generation simultaneously with emissions and losses. Emissions piling up as the combined result from applying fossil energy to:

  • develop, install and maintenance of the new power grid,
  • to produce all the batteries required as subsequent by-products and to treat the subsidiary waste material (Batteries Not Included In Renewable Fantasy Plans. Posted on Sun 11/18/2018 by PA Pundits – International https://papundits.wordpress.com/2018/11/18/batteries-not-included-in-renewable-fantasy-plans/)
  • to deal with fluctuations in demands covering gaps over peak periods
  • and to maintain productivity against atmospheric interference.

Enforcing demand over a product for which there is no infrastructure capable of covering the supply required is like putting the cart before the horse.

This is how the subject has been covered in the media. English left and Spanish right:

https://reneweconomy.com 

Spain is proposing to ban fossil fuel subsidies, dump investments that encourage dirty energy use and will also drive lighter diesel and petrol vehicles off the road. And it has dusted off its renewable energy targets and is now aiming for 100 per cent renewables by 2050.

It marks a significant turnaround for one of Europe’s larger coal-mining, gas-importing and auto-manufacturing countries. Fracking would also be banned nationwide.

In a draft of country’s Law on Climate Change and Energy Transition, published on Tuesday, the five-month-old socialist government proposes to reduce Spain’s greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% by 2030 and 90% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels.

The 2030 goal would amount to a 37% reduction from current levels, which Madrid called more ambitious than any other EU country.

This is Spain’s first national law on emissions reduction and clean energy goals.

https://ciudadesdelfuturo.es/europa-comienza-prohibir-los-coches-diesel.php 

Los coches diésel pueden ser prohibidos en las ciudades de Alemania.  Así lo acaba de anunciar el Tribunal Administrativo germano que da libertad a los ayuntamientos del país para vetar la circulación de este tipo de vehículos. Esta resolución, aunque revolucionaría, no deja de ser un reflejo de la normativa que está impulsando Europa desde Bruselas.
Desde el 01 de enero de 2018, los vehículos diésel de más de 20 años tienen prohibido su circulación dentro de la Unión Europea. Y, países como Francia o Reino Unido, comenzaran con las restricciones a partir de 2024.

¿Por qué se prohíben los coches diésel?

La población mundial está creciendo, al igual que la demanda de movilidad. Como resultado, el número de automóviles podría aumentar de 900 millones que hay en la actualidad a alrededor de 2.400 millones, en 2050. Por lo tanto, si queremos cumplir con los compromisos de reducción de emisiones marcados en los tratados internacionales, se hace necesario contar con coches que no contaminen.
Otra de las principales razones de su prohibición es la salud de las personas que viven en los núcleos urbanos. Los coches diésel producen óxido de nitrógeno, el cual contribuye al calentamiento global y a la lluvia ácida. Además es perjudicial respirarlo, llevando a problemas respiratorios o incluso a la muerte.
En toda la Unión Europea, más de medio millón de personas encuentran cada año una muerte prematura por culpa de la contaminación. Así lo desvela el informe anual sobre polución de la Agencia Europea del Medio Ambiente, en el que se detalla que 30.000 de esos fallecimientos tienen lugar en España.

 

In a normal world, when emissions are a problem, the mitigation actions address the sources by their contribution. The strongest source gets tackled first. The ban of internal combustion engines focus on automobiles which are already reducing their emissions and increases the impact from sources derived from electric generation. Based on the data about emissions this strategy, which seems to have no opposition by international bodies such as UN, WMO, IPCC, … I wonder if is repeating the mindset from previous industrial revolution.

I understand that all comes to energy “dependency” and geopolitical control of resources. Countries are fighting for their energetic independence. But why is it not embraced the development of technology more efficient in the use of multiple sources of energy and decides to risk it all to one single form of energy? Such strategy jeopardise a whole system by the simple arrival of a storm strong enough to collapse power grids, generate flooding and lightning strikes as well as trapping vehicles in roads due to snow blizzards or alike. Such compilation of events are more favourable to occur as the atmosphere keeps accommodating more energy in free state due to the concentration of GHGs liberated by activities carried out in industrial processes. Activities such as electric generation, the mining followed to obtain the materials involved in the building of solar panels and windmills as much as the manufacturing of all the hardware associated.

If the efforts are not focused on improving the technology available to transform energy into work we will keep perpetuating the problems associated to our previous technology by applying it to build a new infrastructure, to install it, to make it run, to maintain it, to fix it, to dispose its waste by-products,  …

The transition into a new energetic demand, should come first with the establishment of a technology reliable and efficient harvesting, transferring, distributing and transforming the energy being introduced.

Link to Some Related previous publications and brief extracts. (follow links to access full assessments and discussions):

May 7, 2015 Domesticating Nature. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Rsearchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.36812.51848 https://wp.me/p403AM-ym

_____________Extract from the publication shared on December 3, 2015Energy. Looking For Sources of Something We Waste.” also included in the publication (2017 Aug)Climate. A System Becoming Dominated By Free Energy. The “Drama”, Character Driven VS Plot Driven(by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) Pdf available at Researchgate: DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18509.13289 _________________________________

https://wp.me/p403AM-O8

We need Energy to survive. And then, we need more energy to survive… with style.

Formal practices of survival require energy to obtain more energy to support our style of live. Which in turn, demands energy to address the consequences of having to deal with the residuals generated in the process of production and furthermore, the waste produced due to misuse and excess.

So in order to avoid the negative repercussions derived from our systems of production and consumption the conclusion achieved is that we “need” to find alternative sources of energy to keep consuming increasing amounts of energy.

Well, I wonder, why are we looking for sources of something that we already waste?

America s Supersized Energy Waste. By Melissa C. Lott | May 16, 2012. In this work the energy embedded in wasted food was calculated by considering the energy needed for the production, transportation, sale, and preparation of the food. To access the entire report, go here.

We are looking for sources of something that we already waste. So, are we applying the right mind set?

I wonder, why are we looking for sources of something that we already waste?

The answer might be, because the system in place to obtain and consume energy is not sustainable. But such scenario has raised from a very narrow mind set behind it, which accepts huge amounts of energy wasted for as long as the production cover demands, maintaining losses as part of control measures over market competency. And that is where trading values and assets come in place, as it always has been.

Energetically sustainable, how much energy is invested versus how much is produced which makes the work that covers a need.

Energy stored in Fossil materials (coal, petrol, gas) has been handled with very pour energetic efficiency. And same has happened in other sectors like food manipulation. If we choose to invest all “our eggs” into renewable, the only way to make it sustainable comes through assessing the mind set applied.

We have to remember that most of the technology relies on heating up water, from burning fossil fuels to nuclear and even solar.

We are still in the Steam Era mind set.

Based on the current state of the energy infrastructure, I believe that the challenge ahead is being presented in not underestimating the amount of energy wasted throughout the development, maintenance, use and disposal of our old and new technologies.

I am aware of that by just pointing to issues does not contributes enough to find solutions. My position at this point is that the reduction of emissions to mitigate GHGs should come by applying a mind set focused on energy efficient sourcing, manipulation and recovery in all sectors.

The concept of “Waste”, should be penalised in all sectors. That would allow a transition between systems of production and consumption, maximising the value of the already set infrastructures, limiting the impact from developing technologies and enforcing sustainability in the use of the remaining resources in the planet meanwhile adapting to a more efficient “symbiotic relation” between human activities and the environment.

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Link to Some Related previous publications (follow links to access full assessments and discussions. Index with all previous analyses at Framework and Timeline page)

August 2, 2016 Environmental Questions and Answers for Petrol Fans (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.) https://wp.me/p403AM-188

October 16, 2017 The “Illusion” of Knowledge or A Trust Issue Nobody Wants to Feel Responsible For (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24451.20008 https://wp.me/p403AM-1EG


Greenhouse gas emission statistics – air emissions accounts.

Europe. Eurostats

 

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Greenhouse_gas_emission_statistics

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Greenhouse_gas_emission_statistics_-_air_emissions_accounts

DATA: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Greenhouse_gas_emission_statistics_-_air_emissions_accounts#Further_Eurostat_information

NUMERICAL DATA: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=env_ac_ainah_r2&lang=en


EEUU Data


https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions#transportation

https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.php?page=environment_where_ghg_come_from

Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data

Global Emissions by Gas

 

Global Emissions by Economic Sector

Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The energy connection

Fossil fuels consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen. When fossil fuels are burned, oxygen combines with carbon to form CO2 and with hydrogen to form water (H2O). These reactions release heat that we use for energy. The amount of CO2 produced depends on the carbon content of the fuel, and the amount of heat produced depends on the carbon and hydrogen content. Because natural gas, which is mostly methane (CH4), has a high hydrogen content, combustion of natural gas produces less CO2 for the same amount of heat produced from burning other fossil fuels. For example, for the same amount of energy produced, burning natural gas produces about half of the amount of CO2 produced by burning coal.

Nearly half of U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions are from petroleum use

In 2017, about 45% of U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions came from burning petroleum fuels, 29% came from burning natural gas, and 26% came from burning coal.2 Although the industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy (including direct fuel use and electricity purchased from the electric power sector), the transportation sector emits more CO2 because of its near complete dependence on petroleum fuels.

2 pie charts. The first pie chart shows U.S. energy consumption by major fuel/energy sources in 2016: Coal 15%; Non-fossil fuels 19%, natural gas 29%, and petroleum 37%. The second pie chart shows the resulting carbon dioxide emissions by type of fossil fuel: Coal 26%, natural gas 29%, and petroleum 45%.

The residential sector and the commercial sector have lower CO2 emission levels than the transportation sector and the industrial sector. Most of the CO2 emissions associated with energy use by the residential and commercial sectors are from fossil fuel combustion by the electric power sector to produce the electricity that it sells to the residential and commercial sectors.

2 stacked bar charts: The first showing U.S. energy consumption by end-use sectors in 2016 and the second shwoing resulting carbon dioxide emissions for each sector.

Coal is the dominant CO2 emissions source related to electricity generation

In 2017, the electric power sector accounted for about 38% of U.S. primary energy consumption and produced 34% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Coal accounted for 69% and natural gas for 29% of electric power sector CO2 emissions. Emissions from burning petroleum fuels and non-biomass waste (mainly plastics) in waste-to-energy power plants and emissions from some types of geothermal power plants accounted for about 2% of power sector CO2 emissions.

2 pie charts. The first pie chart shows the shares of the types of energy consumption by U.S. electric power sector for electricity generation in 2016: Coal 34%; Non-fossil fuels 37%, natural gas 27%, and petroleum 1%. The second pie chart shows the resulting shares of carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of fossil fuels for electricity generation: Coal 68% natural gas 30%, and 1etroleum 3%.

 

1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015, Executive Summary, April 2017.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Environment, April 2017, preliminary data.

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Research Framework 2013-2018 and Overall Conclusions

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Full index at Timeline page

This year 2018 many of the weather developments and atmospheric dynamics seen show to support the conclusions discussed through the line of research here presented and all the analyses published on climatic drivers being considered such as SST, ENSO, Solar, Arctic Amplification, GHGs, Albedo, Aerosols, Anthropogenic Forcing and Methodological Bias among them (see index for full coverage):

  • There is no need for the Polar Vortex to Break in order to have Arctic displacements into Mid-Latitunal circulation. Tropospheric Circulation fuelled by convective forcing is affecting Arctic circulation from the bottom up instead of the theory suggesting Stratospheric forcing.
  • The ENSO is not a driver of convective forcing over the NH,
  • Convective forcing from Mid-latitudinal towards the Arctic circulation has wear off the gradients of temperature generating a strong Polar Jet Stream.
  •  Arctic warming occurs through atmospheric intrusions from Mid Latitudes,
  • The collapse of the Polar Jet Stream has opened Arctic circulation to Mid-Latitudinal intrusions allowing Trans-Arctic circulation between Pacific and Atlantic Basins.
  •  The global Temperature measured is the resultant of mixing patterns in the atmosphere,
  • Therefore an increase in mixing dynamics creates a pause in temperature raise,
  • An increase in mixing dynamics show an increase in convective forcing,
  • Convective forcing is the work resultant from an increase in atmospheric energy being incorporated in free state,
  • SST. The first and fastest medium reacting to the energy entering the system is the atmosphere. And therefore the atmosphere leads, and the events found in the other mediums follow. (2015. Climate and weather December 2015. Another Polar Vortex another Heat Wave? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD) Researchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19966.48968)
  • The incorporation and spread of energy in free state into the atmosphere is carried and released by water vapour
  • An increase of water vapour in atmospheric circulation requires an increase in the thermal capacity of the atmosphere
  • The process of enhancing the thermal capacity of the atmosphere comes by increasing the concentration of GHGs, conc of aerosols and land surface albedo.
  • Several processes carried out by human activity are linked with the previous assessment: human activity reduces the capacity of the biotic environment to fix energy from free state into inert state by reducing biochemical processing and storage (CxHxOx photosynthesis and biomass) and increases atmospheric concentrations of GHGs by releasing CO2 and H2O into the atmosphere. Also, land use and cover transformations increase albedo, industrial activities increase aerosols and the compartmentalization of water affects water cycles.
  • In a thermodynamic system the energetic pool is the sum of the amount of energy in free state capable of doing work, and the energy fixed in an inert form as part of mass. The amount of energy in free state is proportional to the amount of energy fixed in inert form as mass (E=mc2). The release of energy from its inert form increases the amount of energy in free state to do work. Energy is not created, neither destroyed. The transformation of the three phases of the environment forced by human activities, gaseous (atmosphere), liquid (water cycle) and solid (land use and cover), increases the amount of energy in free state capable of promoting all forms of work; convective forcing, strong winds, solid and liquid precipitation, lightning, dust storms, heat waves, cold displacements, and ultimately, and increase in atmospheric mixing in altitude and across latitudes.

All previous conclusions have been reached throughout more than 200 assessments carried out from 2013 to date.

The line of research presented since 2013 in this Blog and ResearchGate focus on analysing the possible gaps of knowledge addressing Climatic Modifications, “Filling-In or/and Finding Out those Gaps of knowledge”. As part of the strategy followed with my work I have chosen to re-publish previous analyses trying to highlight the difference between weather and climate. While weather is a description of the events being unfolded in real-time, climatic developments can be described as the repetition through time of common features shared between weather conditions pointing to new patterns in global circulation and the driving mechanisms behind those. Such approach helps to make clear difference between what it can be seen as unprecedented and what it can be seen as unexpected.

The implications derived from considering the global atmospheric dynamics under the conclusions raised address specifically the weather developments being seen to unfold in real time:

 

 

Airmass and IR Europe 16 Nov 2018

Summary of previous relevant publications addressing Atmospheric dynamics:

  • From previous publication “A Climate between Waters (2015)”: An interconnection between Atlantic and Pacific atmospheric circulation through the Arctic would affect Equatorial winds. That would have an impact over the distribution of SST being dominated by them, being the most relevant the ENSO.(more discussion also here and here)

In order to strengthen the continuity of my research I want to unify those publications sharing similar assessments so they verify each other when placed side by side.

From previous publication:

“My assessments point to conclude that the mixing ratio between masses of air being warmed up at equatorial and mid-latitudes has increased altering the stratification of the atmosphere in its 3 dimensions.

As a result, some atmospheric events become more erratic in their behaviour and seasons are dominated by localised masses of air instead of the Solar angle of radiation linked with the position and tilt of the Earth.”

That would explain why locations in Northern latitudes might see warmer conditions than those in the south. Or even high contrasts between locations in the same latitude between west and east as we have seen at North America.

From previous publication:

The possibility of facing a weakening Jet Stream due to a decrease in the Thermal contrast between the Subtropical and Polar atmospheric regions has created scenarios in which the variations in meteorological conditions for a particular location can come without a transition. One week is freezing cold and the next pretty warm. How can that happen?

The large north-south waves in the jet stream (Rossby waves) are occurring more frequently and may be increasing in amplitude. Larger waves can cause cool air to be pushed toward the equator when the waves dip to low latitudes, and warm air to be pushed toward the poles when the waves swing back. For areas on the ground below these waves, that translates into wild and unseasonable temperature extremes, sometimes called “weather whiplash.”

Such scenario can be seen nowadays when we look at the graphic representations created to simulate the prediction for the Western European meteorological conditions in the period between the 3th of March and the 14th of March 2015.

Here I have created a video with the sequence of images generated for this period so you can appreciate the forecast describing the behaviour of the phase/limit where both masses of air get in contact and how it looks like a fluid releasing “drops of weather”.

The implications raising from such type of atmospheric behaviour are yet to be fully understood. To begin with, the possibility of having sudden intrusions of masses of air inducing extreme changes in meteorological variables might affect the life cycle of the biota since the most of it, plants and animals, follows changes on Temp and Humidity suffering behavioural, hormonal and physiological alterations. Also it must be considered the rapid respond to those variables from species with a quick metabolism. Many of which, insects and fungi, might suffer blooming rates of growth coinciding with a vulnerable stage in the development of other species like crops and wild plants. This scenario opens questions which I believe are worthy to be included in a debate about “the possibility of its increasing frequency in the near future”, also discussed in previous posts  (UPGRADED 11 March2015) Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla.)

From previous publication:

The wobbliness of the North Hemispheric Polar Jet Stream made the news in 2013/14 as the result of a broken Polar Vortex, dropping masses of cold air at mid-latitudes, bringing winter weather all along their paths. In 2014/15 the Jet Stream kept wobbling, however this time, without a persistent Polar Vortex broken. I called them drops of weather and discussed the significance of their formation and the implications.

We are at the transition from Summer to Winter 2015/16. At the Iberian peninsula, even at Canary Islands and through the Mediterranean sea, we have started to see such drops of weather to appear once again. The sequence between cold and warm periods is creating wide contrasts in temperature. It seems that it is starting to rain drops of winter and that this must be the new Autumn to come.

In the following video I present an animation with images taken from satellite (Eumetsat Airmass) between the 20th Oct 2015 and 9 Nov 2015 showing the behaviour of the Jet Stream and the recent masses of cold air moving at Mid Latitudes. I also gathered some images showing the forecast built from GFS model for pressure at 500mb and temperature showing the expected behaviour of the Jet Stream from 9th Nov to 20th Nov. In total, between observation and forecast, there is a 30 days period.

From previous publication:

I believe that the most visual representation of having the atmosphere increasing its thermal conductivity would be seen throughout the wobbling state of the Polar Jet Stream. As part of my research since 2013 I have been following-up the state of the Polar Jet Stream. This is the latest animation that I have made over the period February 2016 at the Western Europe-East Atlantic.


Atmospheric Dynamics

The current line of research studies and discusses current developments throughout publications from 2013 to date. In the analyses presented I offer points of view unifying in a single argument the behaviour of drivers such as ENSO, Arctic Amplification and Polar Vortex configuration. That is, an increase in the atmospheric energetic pool in the form of free state is fuelling a mixing dynamic (Convective motion) responsible for creating fluctuations in temperature patterns, and yet, denoting a constant increase in kinetic displayments.

The increasing warming over mid-latitudes is using water vapour as the carrier of energy incorporating it over the whole atmosphere and into Arctic latitudes. Such mechanism will increase the energy pool at the Arctic, what in other words can be seen as an increase in temperature and processes of SSW affecting the POLAR Vortex configuration.

Furthermore, the spread of energy contained by water vapour also affects the resilience shown by Lows and Highs to dissipate their energy at lower latitudes and affects developments at the ITCZ zone and equatorial wind shear at the Eq. Pacific.

A pattern of change in the atmosphere dynamics beyond considering global warming or cooling. That is, global mixing.

From previous analyses:

October 13, 2016 Global Mixing in Atmospheric Dynamics (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla Ph.D.) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21255.60320

From my line of research I am convinced on that Arctic perturbations at the Atlantic basin (warm intrusions over the Arctic and cold at mid-latitudes) are responsible for the genesis of Tropical Systems due to alterations over the ITCZ.

From there, the behaviour and paths followed by them would also be driven by more Arctic perturbations (combination of warm intrusions at the North Pacific and North Atlantic and cold at lower latitudes) inducing changes in pressure located all around their path, in front and behind their movement.

At least these are part of my interpretations from my observations. There might be experts with a different analyses.

What concerns to my research is the resilience of the storm to dissipate its energy, and I am considering not only the conditions at tropospheric level but also at higher altitudes.

In the latest post in my blog (Equatorial Dynamics. A conversation between Joaquin and Matthew (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. I pointed out that the equator has shown to be warmed up at 50hPa. Altogether it will reduce the differential in the gradients of energy between the storm and its surroundings reducing the dissipation rate of its energy, allowing for it to hover keeping momentum as we have seen with other storms moving for days over the Atlantic. (see video Equatorial dynamics)

In the present publication I want to point out how much interconnected are the processes linking Arctic perturbations (Pacific and Atlantic basins) with the developments at the Pacific and Atlantic ITCZ on generating mixing dynamics in latitude and altitude. (see video Global Mixing Oct 2016)

Related

September 14, 2016 Between Global Cooling and Global Warming There Is “Global Mixing” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, Ph.D.) Researchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19874.63684

Throughout the line of research presented several animations have addressed the arguments offered supporting with a visual aid the patterns addressed.

drops-of-weather-sept-2016-diegto-fdez-sevilla-phd

31 October 2018 Airmass and IR.

In my assessments I have defended that the increase in the energy pool at mid-latitudes would ultimately create an scenario with an overcharged atmosphere. That would reduce the contrasts with which to create and maintain stability in the structure required to condense energy in singular events, like hurricanes. Giving more relevance to the single contrast between Ocean/continental masses. However, the opening of the Arctic circulation through a weak Jet Stream would reduce the pressure in the containment absorbing the condensation of energy at mid-latitudes, expanding into a new volume.

Accordingly, hadley circulation gets affected (see also) generating new patterns of turbulence at the ITCZ as well as it gets influenced Arctic mixing zones with lower latitudes.

In this scenario TCs are generated under an increase in the mixing ratio of an unstable atmospheric circulation dominated by kinetic energy transferred by water vapour thanks to GHGs, and immersed in an overcharged atmosphere with no place where to diffuse its energy, becoming resilient as long as they stay over the ocean. So they endure like a piece of an ice rock in cold water.

About Sea Surface Temperatures, my assessments take SST as subsequent conditions driven by wind shear. So the interaction between masses of air in circulation allows or inhibits SST developments. Once the scenario is built on SST this becomes a “battle field” conditioning the subsequent interaction between the following masses of air and the characteristics of the “grounds” where the game will be played (sort of speak). Like the effect of the ice conditions in an ice hockey match.

El Niño is an event which happens in a very small portion of the Earth, it is related to the temperature of a very thin layer of the Ocean in depth (e.g.: coralreefwatch.noaa.gov uses SSTs at “one meter” depth). A small percentage of the area occupied by the whole Oceanic masses, and even smaller when it is integrated in the multidimensional space combining Ocean and Atmosphere. It is kind of intriguing to think why it has been so easy to conclude that such small portion of the entire system is driving it as a whole. It is like considering that the flowering of plants drives the seasons. Similarly it could be said about using SST at the Arctic to justify altogether; the lack of ice, warmer temperatures at tropospheric level and even at stratospheric level. There is not enough energy in the SST of such small area as it is the Arctic to justify all those convective dynamics.

In the present study I have been very persistent trying to highlight how much relevance it is given to a small area in size and depth driving global circulation as it is the SST at the Eq Pacific while an area of the same size and even more depth could be identified in the Amazon or by the change suffered in Land cover by agriculture at global scale.

We have to keep in mind that SST are measured in the 5 or less m of the Ocean meanwhile Forests can occupy more than 15 meters in depth. And both are sources of the latent heat carried out in the atmosphere which fuels convective dynamics.

  • Between global warming and global cooling there is global mixing.
September 8, 2015 Trans-Arctic circulation between Pacific and Atlantic Basins. A Climate “Between Waters” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla).  Reasearchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1697.5847
May 26, 2016 Atmospheric Circulation and the Mixing Zone. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)  ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34019.04645
July 1, 2016 Atmospheric mixing. Indian Basin June 2016 (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)  ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11803.98088
August 26, 2016 Aug 2016 Follow-up on previous assessments. Atmospheric Dynamics, Temperature Displacements, Atmospheric Mixing (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)

September 14, 2016 Between Global Cooling and Global Warming There Is “Global Mixing” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, Ph.D.) Researchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19874.63684
October 13, 2016 Global Mixing in Atmospheric Dynamics (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla Ph.D.) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21255.60320
May 5, 2017 Mixing Dynamics keep shaping A Roller coaster of Temperatures over South Europe. Follow-up on previous research 5th May 17. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16627.43043
June 9, 2017 “Mixing Dynamics” in the Atmosphere. A follow-up on previous research by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23548.03209
March 14, 2018 Visualising Wind and Convective Forcing Driving Climatic Dynamics. Follow-up 14 March 2018 by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD  Pdf available at DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34233.06249
April 19, 2018 Climate, Weather and Energy. Using a Climatic Regime to explain Weather Events by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD Research DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.27923.58406
May 23, 2018 Convective Forcing Dominates Atmospheric Circulation NH (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23043.20002
June 29, 2018 Seasonal Transitions under a New Climatic Scenario. by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD.  ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18385.22881
August 24, 2018 The Arctic Conundrum. Follow-up on previous research by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD   ResearchGate pdf DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15411.68640
October 18, 2018 Arctic Dynamics as part of a Global Pattern in Atmospheric Circulation. Research Follow-up October 2018 (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)

_______________________________________

Conclusions on:

Weather, Climate, Energy, Environment and Man


The question  driving the whole debate on Climatic Deviations from “a Normal”, or Climatic Drift, focus most of the methodologies on temperature.

However I have followed a different approach in my analyses looking at Gradients of Energy in all its forms. That is why in 2014 I offered my thoughts as a theory of practical applications.

Energy fuels the work done by warm masses of air displacing colder masses of air in their path. That increases mixing patterns generating anomalies in temperature.

Behind an increase in the amount of work carried out by masses of air there is an increase in the energy fuelling such dynamics. Energy can only be transferred, not created or destroyed. So more work means more energy in circulation. More energy in circulation can only be sustained by a substance carrying it. Either if we consider that the energy driving anomalies comes from the Sun or from the Oceans, the carrier has to be in the atmosphere in order for the energy to produce work. And the body loosing heat cools down.

E.g. A corridor of wind over the Arctic is triggered by a conversion of Temperature into work, convection and advection, which are the result of mixing masses of air. As I have published in previous analyses, such Trans-Arctic connection between Atlantic and Pacific Basins is part of a pattern increasing the mixing ratio between masses of air otherwise separated by thermal compartmentalization, like the Polar Jet Stream. An increase in the dispersion of energetic forms have different outcomes, one of which it would be a temporary reduction in the average temperature resultant for the mixing between Cold (Arctic) and warm (Mid-Latitude) masses of air as well as in altitude (SSW).

Subsequently, “temperature” is less reliable than looking at “work” seen even in the “mild” events.

In the framework presented throughout the line of research published in this blog (and researchgate) it has been considered “Climate” as being defined by the amount of energy free to do work. In other words, energy free to promote weather events. Accordingly, in my research I define Climate by the amount and state of energy in circulation, and Weather by the use of this energy.

Consequently, with the definition applied for Climate and Weather, my definition of Climate Drift is:

“the deviation from equilibrium of the conditions allowing the perpetuity of an established symbiotic relationship between biotic and none biotic components in a micro and macro ecosystem. This situation can be due to changes in any component of the ecosystem playing a synergistic effect over the rest. And the causes can be either a change in the magnitude of the already implemented forces in place, changes in the directionality or rates in the flows of energy pre-established OR/AND the impact suffered by the incorporation of new components/forces and energy sinks or sources in any part of the system interfering with the previously established order and balance.”

Discussion

The analyses performed in my line of research describe a Climatic Drift, from pre-established atmospheric conditions strongly compartmentalised in Altitude and Latitude, towards a Climatic Regime characterised by an instability originated by patterns of Trans-latitudinal and Vertical mixing. An increase in atmospheric motion inducing sudden and extreme changes in atmospheric conditions generating weather events with abnormal properties for a particular location, throughout latitudes, longitudes and altitudes.

Einstein and his developments were mainly applied in physics due to the use that it was made of his work with the aim to manipulate energy in times of conflict, or to understand space. The equation is simple E=mc2. The language of physics has dominated the discussion over physical developments since then and it has been established as the logical translation of climatic developments. However, in the current times, the role of scientific understanding demands to move beyond the barriers of language, either between semantic cultural languages and between disciplines.

Being myself a Biologist involved in Atmospheric dynamics applying physics to explain such a complex subject as it is climatic evolution might seem like the tale of the child claiming that the Emperor has no clothes.

And yet, it seems to me evident that a thermodynamic system as it is our planet, can not scape from the most basic and powerful understanding of our contemporary scientific evolution. If E=MC2, and the anthropogenic activity is increasing the transformation of M into Energy in the system (from burning Mass from fossils and vegetable components, as well as by liberating other forms of energy such as gravimetric in Dams, Solar, transformation of raw materials, etc,) such transformation rate will move the balance in the thermodynamic behaviour of the whole system, and the rate of such deviation from equilibrium will be related with the speed at which the transformation rate between E/M is performed: M>(c)2

Restating obvious facts is something I believe it is missing in the actual state of knowledge. Many situations, concepts and indexes are what it was left to make a compromise between what was possible to be considered useful at the time. Nobody explained the mechanisms behind those indexes, only the explanation of their existence based on the probability of seeing those patterns to repeat in time. Such probability and uncertainty became “lost” in translation through publications and their basic facts became also accommodated positions from where to stand discussing the future, almost never looking back at the fundamentals sustaining them. Like the ENSO used as a justification without knowing what the ENSO is or the NAO as if both would be static features through time. Those indexes were created based on probability from a static point of view and static references. But, if the atmosphere change its composition and thermodynamics behaviour, how much probability could we expect in seeing those features not changing?? Like the currents in a river, those are temporary features resultant from temporary states in topographic shape and flow levels, same with energy in the atmosphere.

It has been considered as an obvious fact that:

“The Natural System responds to variations and changes in the Climate System.”

Based on my research, I believe that there is a new “factorial” order in our environmental system which comes described by the same components but moving in opposite directions. At the end of the day, or at the beginning of our days, it was biotic processes which made possible the climate we have, and not the other way around.

“The Climate System responds to variations and changes in the Natural System.”

Conclusions

The main conclusion reached from the research carried through this project is defined by the relation described by Einstein between the “free” state of Energy and its “fixed” state as mass.

An ecosystem is an open system because it can exchange energy or materials with other ecosystems. Earth is a closed system with respect to nutrients and chemicals, but open with respect to energy.

The thermodynamic properties of the Earth system define what we call the climatic regimes in our Planet. Those thermodynamic interactions are driven under the fundamental principle:

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another”

This principle links the activity of the human development with the thermodynamic behaviour of our climates.

The main conclusion from my 4 years of researching synergistic interactions between all transformations seen over the Liquid, Gaseous and solid phases of our global Environment indicates that anthropogenic activity is forcing our environment into A System Becoming Dominated By Free Energy. (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18509.13289)

The biotic component of our environmental system is the only one capable of interacting against thermodynamic entropy, against instability. And for as long as Human activity can not replicate such mechanisms in equilibrium with the resources consumed, it might be time to think about domesticating Human Activities instead of following the obsession for Domesticating Natural Behaviour and Geoengineer our Weather. 

Land Use Change through time.

Examples of processes releasing ENERGY FROM ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES

From previous post Domesticating Nature

Atmospheric Oxygen Levels

Atmospheric Oxygen Levels are Decreasing Oxygen levels are decreasing globally due to fossil-fuel burning. The changes are too small to have an impact on human health, but are of interest to the study of climate change and carbon dioxide. These plots show the atmospheric O2 concentration relative to the level around 1985. The observed downward trend amounts to 19 ‘per meg’ per year. This corresponds to losing 19 O2 molecules out of every 1 million O2 molecules in the atmosphere each year.

Scripps O2 Global Oxygen Measurements The Scripps O2 Program measures changes in atmospheric oxygen levels from air samples collected at stations around the world. This sampling network provides a global and hemispheric perspective on oxygen variability. The Scripps O2 Program is based at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La Jolla, California and is under the direction of Professor Ralph Keeling.

Overall Conclusions

An increase in the amount of energy being in “free” state means that kinetic processes will increasingly dominate thermodynamic processes, inducing a transition in our Seasonal and Climatic regimes from being driven by Orbital Positioning to be driven by more erratic Kinetic processes.


Research Framework

Since 2002 I have performed research over the Atmospheric Dynamics interacting with the biota in the field of Aerobiology (PhD studying atmospheric conditions affecting the efficiency of pollen sampling and the aerodynamic behaviour of pollen. Conclusions here. Article on anthropogenic forcing over plants performance here).

In Oct 2013 I focused my attention over climatic dynamics.

The assessments presented in this line of research are not weather reports but interpretations over emerging dynamics, offering arguments and discussion addressing the lack of understanding acknowledged in academia in order to identify mechanisms giving sense to data.

In  AUGUST 2014, Cohen et al, published a review over the state of knowledge on Climatic Assessments (DOI:10.1038/NGEO2234) The final remark stated that: “other studies on related topics, especially other observational studies, share some of the same shortcomings: lack of statistical significance, causality unclear, incomplete mechanistic understanding, and so on”)

Based on my analyses, in Oct 2014 I published what I believe to be a valid theory explaining current developments in atmospheric dynamics. I shared my thoughts at my blog and several groups in LinkedIn (like the AGU, NASA and NOA groups) where the immense response offered has been silence.

October 21, 2014 New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) Researchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4859.3440

The theory that I have developed follows “in alignment” with the work published previously by scientists  Judah CohenMasato Mori, Colin Summerhayes, Coumou and Ted Shepherd. Their work supported the theory of that early snowfall over Asia increases albedo leading to heat retention in the atmosphere provoking Arctic ice to melt. Their approach point to decreasing snow cover as the cause diminishing albedo enhancing heat absorption. Ultimately, their approach theorize that such enhanced capacity of the Arctic to absorb heat would lead to “amplify” atmospheric heat absorption already being fuelled with GHGs. And therefore, such increase in atmospheric temperature would reduce the thermal contrast required for a strong jet stream and consequently originating disturbance in atmospheric weather patterns associated.

What I propose with my hypothesis is that the so called “Arctic Amplification” is a synchronic consequence altogether with other environmental phenomena (ENSO, NAO, etc…) and not the trigger. I defend that “Artic Amplification” is a symptom and not a causation of atmospheric dynamics. Arctic circulation does not amplify a process but on the contrary, it reflects the consequence of absorbing the influence from mid-latitude conditions. (updates can be found in the category polar vortex and jet stream. 26/04/2016)

What I am trying to highlight in my theory are the possible mechanisms which would explain: changes in albedo which support the concept of “Arctic Amplification”, early snowfalls in central Asia, Arctic ice cover meltdown and oceanic increases in salinity and ultimately, the origin of atmospheric blocking patterns and a slow down or “pause” in T raise, unified in single principle: Increasing conc. of CO2 and water vapour induce a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation.


In December 2014 I sent several emails asking for feedback. The 17th of December 2014, Jennifer Francis sent her answer to me (full email exchange here):

“The topic you’ve written about is extremely complicated and many of your statements have not yet been verified by peer-reviewed research. It is an exciting and active new direction in research, though, so I encourage you to pursue it. To get funding or a job in this field, however, will require a deeper understanding of the state of the research, knowledge of atmospheric dynamics (not just suggestive examples and anecdotal evidence), and statements supported by published (or your own) analysis.”

On December 24, 2014, I sent her my reply, which represents the final one since there has not been further communication:

“I just want to thank you for giving me a chance and read my ideas. What I wrote was after reading that Cohen proposed that early snowfall over Asia increases albedo leading to heat retention in the atmosphere provoking Arctic ice to melt and create heat absorption leading to jet stream weakening due to Arctic Amplification in atm heat absorption. I believe that all of that is a consequence and not the trigger. That is a symptom and not the cause. My theory tries to find common ground to explain the cause leading to Arctic amplification, blocking patterns associated to deep cyclonic events, a pause in atmospheric T raise, increase in kinetic energy dispersed over the whole hemisphere, water flash floods, as well as frequent  trans-equatorial circulation between hemispheres at jet stream level. I will try to find data to support my theory and I am open to reconsider all my assumptions. That’s why I really appreciate your input.”

In Feb 2015 I published a revision and since then, a constant follow-up throughout more than 230 assessments.

Theories have been formulated to explainpredict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions.

October 21, 2014 New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Researchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4859.3440
November 14, 2014 Why there is no need for the Polar Vortex to break in order to have a wobbling Jet Stream and polar weather? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Researchgate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2500.0488
February 10, 2015 Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. ResearchgateDOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1975.7602/1
October 21, 2015 Discussing Climatic Teleconnections. Follow Up On My Previous Research (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)ResearchGate: DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2962.7605
January 20, 2017 Climate and Indexes. A dashboard of Confusion. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25016.96007
April 19, 2018 Climate, Weather and Energy. Using a Climatic Regime to explain Weather Events by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD Research DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.27923.58406

Numerous Follow-ups over previous assessments have been published contrasting their validity against real-time developments challenging and legitimizing the conclusions offered. (in the timeline section below use Ctrl+F: “followup”)

A Seasonal Calendar

Such activity generated a seasonal calendar or agenda, linking atmospheric dynamics and particular periods of the year as part of a pattern.

This calendar has allowed me to create a framework over which to identify atmospheric dynamics linked throughout the seasonality driven by Solar tilt and its deviations between years. One example can be found over the conditions found at the Arctic and its implication over Mid Latitudinal and equatorial developments.

Some examples among the +200 analyses published between Oct 2013 and March 2018 are in the following section. See full index of analyses and their DOI’s following the link here. Open individual analyses to read in full by clicking over the title.

Climate Drifts

Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Drift. Are we there yet? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) July 2, 2015
September 2, 2016 Climate Drift, The True Meaning of Things and the Drift of Those. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)

The ENSO

InFormAtion. The “Act” of “Giving Form” to “Knowledge” (by Diego fdez-Sevilla) September 30, 2015
December 11, 2015 Could It Be El Niño The New “Wolf” Coming? Discussing SST ” El Niño ” and Climatic Developments. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
March 22, 2016 Pacific atmospheric dynamics with and without a positive ENSO (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

Solar activity

April 10, 2014 Exploring the effects of humanly generated factors in the role played by Solar activity in the climate. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
July 24, 2015 Solar Activity and Human Activity, Settling Their Environmental Liability. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.36702.33606
September 22, 2016 Solar Forcing in Our Climatic and Atmospheric Dynamics. Location, Location, Location (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, Ph.D.)

Soils

December 9, 2015 SOILS. The Skeleton Holding The Muscle On Our Ecosystems (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
March 31, 2016 Plant growth, CO2, Soil and Nutrients. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

Biological Productivity in our atmospheric and climatic developments.

August 14, 2014 Biotic players and atmospheric processes. Another piece of the puzzle. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
Debating Climate, Environment and Planetary evolution. Define your position. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) October 2, 2014
June 26, 2014 Biological Productivity and its Influence on Cloud Formation. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
December 22, 2014 Biological Productivity, Amazonia and Atmospheric Circulation. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
May 7, 2015 Domesticating Nature. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
May 20, 2015 News from an Ecosystem (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
June 18, 2015 Extreme climatic events, implications for projections of species distributions and ecosystem structure (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
August 2, 2016 Environmental Questions and Answers for Petrol Fans (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)
March 3, 2017 Thermodynamic Ecosystems by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD
March 15, 2017 Blooming Activity of Biotic Processes All The Way Round the Globe (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)

Arctic Amplification and Antarctic dynamics.

October 7, 2015 Arctic Intake of Water Vapour (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
October 30, 2015 Follow-up on Arctic circulation 30 Oct 2015 ( by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
November 5, 2015 There is Ice or Frost In Antarctica? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
June 10, 2016 The Butterfly Effect on Arctic Circulation. Peer review verification on previous assessments (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
November 10, 2016 Cyclonic Alignment Towards the Arctic (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)
November 17, 2016 Arctic Amplification versus Arctic Absorption (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)
March 3, 2017 The Antarctic Bubble (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)

Trans-latitudinal Dynamics. Equator-Tropics-Mid Latitudes-Polar

January 28, 2015 The origin of the Storm “Juno” 27 Jan 2015 (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
September 8, 2015 A Climate “Between Waters” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla).
October 7, 2016 Equatorial Dynamics. A conversation between Joaquin and Matthew (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)
October 13, 2016 Global Mixing in Atmospheric Dynamics (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla Ph.D.)
March 8, 2017 Those Little Things in Atmospheric Dynamics. Juno, Jonas, Mathew and Joaquin (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)
February 28, 2018 Arctic Warming as a Result of Convective Forcing by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD  Pdf at ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34551.73125

Teleconnections

In climate it is becoming Less probable to not have a High probability. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) May 29, 2015
June 5, 2015 Climate and Data. Drinking From the Source (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
InFormAtion. The “Act” of “Giving Form” to “Knowledge” (by Diego fdez-Sevilla) September 30, 2015
October 21, 2015 Discussing Climatic Teleconnections. Follow Up On My Previous Research (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
October 16, 2015 SST Anomalies and Heat Waves. Are They Not All Just Heat Displacements? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
January 20, 2017 Climate and Indexes. A dashboard of Confusion. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)

Scientific Method

February 21, 2014 Resilience in our models (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
February 25, 2014 Resilience in our environment. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
“The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything” is … 42 (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) May 15, 2014
When the order of the factors does affect the product. “A Changing Climate can affect the diversity of an ecosystem” Vs “Changing the diversity of an ecosystem can affect the Climate”. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) May 21, 2014
Communication takes more than just publishing thoughts. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) June 9, 2015
The scope of Environmental Science and scientific thought. From Thought-driven to Data-driven, from Critical Thinking to Data Management. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) June 26, 2015
InFormAtion. The “Act” of “Giving Form” to “Knowledge” (by Diego fdez-Sevilla) September 30, 2015
March 10, 2017 Modelling the “Model” and the Observer (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)

Water

July 17, 2014 Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules (polymers), affect oceans functions as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation…? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
August 6, 2014 Inland sanctuaries of water vapour for atmospheric circulation. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

Continentality

May 13, 2014 Looking at the influence of continentality in atmospheric circulation. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

Thermodynamics

October 21, 2014 (Updated 22/Dec/14) New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
January 29, 2016 Observed Atmospheric Dynamics. A follow-up assessment over the theory proposed on Energetic gradients by Diego Fdez-Sevilla.
March 10, 2016 Tangled in Words. Atmospheric Dynamics, Stefan Boltzmann Calculations and Energy Balance (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
May 26, 2016 Atmospheric Circulation and the Mixing Zone. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
May 30, 2016 When Temperature Becomes Something Else (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
July 1, 2016 Atmospheric mixing. Indian Basin June 2016 (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)
September 14, 2016 Between Global Cooling and Global Warming There Is “Global Mixing” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, Ph.D.)
December 17, 2016 Orbital Seasonality vs Kinetic Seasonality. A Change Triggered from Changing the Order of The Factors (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)
March 3, 2017 Thermodynamic Ecosystems by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD
April 19, 2018 Climate, Weather and Energy. Using a Climatic Regime to explain Weather Events by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD Research DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.27923.58406
May 23, 2018 Convective Forcing Dominates Atmospheric Circulation NH (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23043.20002

Temperature

Talking about climate (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) May 12, 2015
August 6, 2015 Atmospheric Composition and Thermal Conductivity. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
April 6, 2016 Atmospheric Dynamics, GHG’s, Thermal Conductivity and Polar Jet Stream (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)  ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33911.32167
November 25, 2016 Atmospheric Thermal Conductance (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)
March 3, 2017 Thermodynamic Ecosystems by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD  ResearchGate DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32238.10566

Ultimately, the best review available to judge the validity of any theory on mechanisms and synergies comes with the real time contrast between previous assessments and present conditions.

Imagery and Methodology


Nowadays, there are many divisions between disciplines due to the isolated nature of their specific language and methodologies. I might not use the right vocabulary for all the fields which I discuss, or the right data or the right reasoning. But when nobody is able to offer a consensus over what is going on, I wonder, what is right this days?.

After leaving months, even years of time to expose my conclusions for public discussion and review, once those have no faced any criticism or arguments refuting their value, I create a pdf file and a DOI publishing them at my profile in Researchgate. In order to maintain their genuineness and legitimate innovative nature, I keep its original state so those can be compared with any copy made by any third party at any time. For your own references and review over its originality over time with respect to other publications via scientific papers and/or news reports, you can compare the publications at the blog and researchgate with the records archived:

 


This work is protected under Intellectual Property laws licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.)

EGU discussed open science in 2017. GDB4 – Is Open Science the way to go?”. Min 27. The currency of data and data parasites. Min 35 Creative commons license. Min 45 Data Sharing and rules of engagement. min 56 Q&A Data Citations and Credit on producing data) http://client.cntv.at/egu2017/gdb4

About Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

Data policy The products processed by "Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD" are made available to the public for educational and/or scientific purposes, without any fee on the condition that you credit "Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD" as the source. Copyright notice: © Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD 2013-2019 orcid: orcid.org/0000-0001-8685-0206 and the link to its source at diegofdezsevilla.wordpress or permanent DOI found at Reearchgate. Should you write any scientific publication on the results of research activities that use Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD products as input, you shall acknowledge the Diego Fdez-Sevilla's PhD Project in the text of the publication and provide an electronic copy of the publication (d.fdezsevilla@gmail.com). If you wish to use the Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD products in advertising or in any commercial promotion, you shall acknowledge the Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD Project and you must submit the layout to Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD for approval beforehand (d.fdezsevilla@gmail.com). The work here presented has no economic or institutional support. Please consider to make a donation to support the means for making sustainable the energy, time and resources required. Also any sponsorship or mentoring interested would be welcome. Intellectual Property This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. By Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. More guidance on citing this web as a source can be found at NASA webpage: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/bibliography/citations#! For those publications missing at the ResearchGate profile vinculated with this project DOIs can be generated on demand by request at email: d.fdezsevilla(at)gmail.com. **Author´s profile: Born in 1974. Bachelor in General Biology, Masters degree "Licenciado" in Environmental Sciences (2001, Spain). PhD in Aerobiology (2007, UK). Lived, acquired training and worked in Spain, UK, Germany and Poland. I have shared the outcome from my work previous to 2013 as scientific speaker in events held in those countries as well as in Switzerland and Finland. After 12 years performing research and working in institutions linked with environmental research and management, in 2013 I found myself in a period of transition searching for a new position or funding to support my own line of research. In the current competitive scenario, in order to demonstrate my capacities instead of just moving my cv waiting for my next opportunity to arrive, I decided to invest my energy and time in opening my own line of research sharing it in this blog. In March 2017 the budget reserved for this project has ended and its weekly basis time frame discontinued until new forms of economic and/or institutional support are incorporated into the project. The value of the data and the original nature of the research presented in this platform and at LinkedIn has proved to be worthy of consideration by the scientific community as well as for publication in scientific journals. However, without a position as member of an institution, it becomes very challenging to be published. I hope that this handicap do not overshadow the value of my achievements and that the Intellectual Property Rights generated with the license of attribution attached are respected and considered by the scientist involved in similar lines of research. **Any comment and feedback aimed to be constructive is welcome as well as any approach exploring professional opportunities.** In this blog I publish pieces of research focused on addressing relevant environmental questions. Furthermore, I try to break the barrier that academic publications very often offer isolating scientific findings from the general public. In that way I address those topics which I am familiar with, thanks to my training in environmental research, making them available throughout my posts. (see "Framework and Timeline" for a complete index). At this moment, 2019, I am living in Spain with no affiliation attachments. Free to relocate geographically worldwide. If you feel that I could be a contribution to your institution, team and projects, don´t hesitate in contact me at d.fdezsevilla (at) gmail.com or consult my profile at LinkedIn, ResearchGate and Academia.edu. Also, I'd appreciate information about any opportunity that you might know and believe it could match with my aptitudes. The conclusions and ideas expressed in each post as part of my own creativity are part of my Intellectual Portfolio and are protected by Intellectual Property Laws. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial conditions. In citing my work from this website, be sure to include the date of access and DOIs found at the Framework and Timeline page and ResearchGate. (c)Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD, 2018. Filling in or/and Finding Out the gaps around. Publication accessed 20YY-MM-DD at https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/ ***
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