March 2017 Atmospheric Dynamics affecting the Iberian Peninsula. Follow-up from previous research by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD

March 2017 Atmospheric Dynamics affecting the Iberian Peninsula. Follow-up from previous research by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD

(updated 15 March 2017 with news reports on weather developments triggered due to atmospheric dynamics discussed in this post. DOI 10.13140/RG.2.2.23010.63687)

In 2014 the line of research defined by the assessments published in this blog could not be verified by peer review articles due to the absence of them applying similar approach. That was confirmed by direct communication with Prof Jennifer Francis by email (in full here).

Therefore, since the statements presented have not yet been verified by peer-reviewed research, the original and pioneer nature of the line of research presented in this blog can only rely on real time developments through follow-ups in order to evaluate the veracity of the assessments published and the conclusions and interpretation offered.

In that way, I have published analyses over atmospheric dynamics as part of the follow-up required. You can find those in the timeline page using ctrl+F and the word “follow-up”.

This strategy aims to allow for an open and multidisciplinary review over the validity of the assessment presented in this blog by comparison with the recurrent repetition of patterns unfolding in real time.

Also with the publications in this blog I have re-published previous publications at LinkeIn following such strategy in order to reach an audience as broad as possible:

Two examples from Feb 2017


“Today 6 Feb 2017 I would offer similar assessment over the recent dynamics NH and SH as in Oct 2016-15-14 “Arctic dynamics are dominated by mid-latitude intrusions, where those generate displacements of Arctic masses of air into mid latitudes. Such events create a trans-Arctic interconnectivity between Atlantic and Pacific basins, as well as influence the developments at the ITCZ. Altogether, the general dynamics of the atmosphere would point to an increase in turbulence allowing for an expansion in altitude and latitude for the mixing ratio of different masses of air.” Link at LinkedIn feed


The warming at the Arctic and the break of the Polar vortex is just a progression which we have seen before, but at the time everybody was comfortably reassured by an exceptional warm phase of the ENSO. I do not agree with such position now as I didn´t last year. In order to test the validity from my previous assessment for this year 2017 I leave you to judge my 1 year old publication. Link at LinkedIn’s feed.


This March 2017, I want to keep up this line of review comparing the present developments with earlier analyses and conclusions shared in the line of research presented in this blog.


From previous publications and assessments (see dates of publication and follow links at the titles to access the publications in full):

March 7, 2015 Drops of Weather. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)   (pdf)  DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33796.63360

The possibility of facing a weakening Jet Stream due to a decrease in the Thermal contrast between the Subtropical and Polar atmospheric regions has created scenarios in which the variations in meteorological conditions for a particular location can come without a transition. One week is freezing cold and the next pretty warm. How can that happen?

The large north-south waves in the jet stream (Rossby waves) are occurring more frequently and may be increasing in amplitude. Larger waves can cause cool air to be pushed toward the equator when the waves dip to low latitudes, and warm air to be pushed toward the poles when the waves swing back. For areas on the ground below these waves, that translates into wild and unseasonable temperature extremes, sometimes called “weather whiplash.”


Masses of air crossing the Jet Stream

Such scenario can be seen when we look at the graphic representations created to simulate the prediction for the Western European meteorological conditions in the period between the 3rd of March and the 14th of March 2015.

Here I have created a video with the sequence of images generated for this period so you can appreciate the forecast describing the behaviour of the phase/limit where both masses of air get in contact and how it looks like a fluid releasing “drops of weather”.

(Western Europe. Meteorological forecast for the period between the 3rd of March and the 14th of March 2015. Subjected to changes due to updating processes.)

March 7, 2015 The implications raising from such type of atmospheric behaviour are yet to be fully understood. To begin with, the possibility of having sudden intrusions of masses of air inducing extreme changes in meteorological variables might affect the life cycle of the biota since the most of it, plants and animals, follows changes on Temp and Humidity suffering behavioural, hormonal and physiological alterations. Also it must be considered the rapid respond to those variables from species with a quick metabolism. Many of which, insects and fungi, might suffer blooming rates of growth coinciding with a vulnerable stage in the development of other species like crops and wild plants. This scenario opens questions which I believe are worth to be included in a debate about “the possibility of seeing its frequency increasing in the near future”. Also discussed in previous posts e.g. (UPGRADED 11 March2015) Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla.)


Sudden changes in temperature might induce flowering too early or, getting affected by frostbite, depending on whether the intrusion carries warm or cold air.

I leave here one example from a paper which tackles such kind of scenarios for plants looking at the implications that raising uncertainties carry into the system of production for the food industry and agricultural practices. …(see full publication following link at the title).

May 14, 2015 A roller-coaster of temperatures in South Europe. Spain (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD)  Pdf DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27634.20165

A new record maximum temperature for Spain was set yesterday 13th May, with many local records also broken, and the heat continues today (14th May) in the southeast (Temp on 14th May: All-Time May Heat Record for Europe Falls For the 2nd Time This Month.By: Jeff Masters. May 14, 2015).

Iberia Temps

The new record of 42.6C was recorded at Lanzarote Airport in the Canary Islands, beating the previous May record for Spain by a relatively large 2.5 degrees. It also beats the Lanzarote station’s own previous highest May temperature by a whopping 6 degrees.

The previous May record in Spain was 40.1C at Cordoba on the mainland, and Cordoba itself recorded a new May station record on Wednesday with 41.2C.

Met Office Global Model mean sea level pressure and temperature

Further records could be broken today in parts of Andalucía, Murcia and Valencia as air continues to feed in from North Africa. However, a cold front is pushing gradually southeastwards across Spain, bringing cooler air across much of the country by the end of the week.

What next?

Well, next we have the forecast for a sudden drop of Temp in just 24 hours and even moving to freezing (0ºC) on Wednesday 20th May.

A roller coaster of temperatures in South Europe_Spain by Diego FdezSevilla

Temperature variations Spain 15 May 2015 by Diego Fdez-Sevilla

Map of extreme foreseen temperatures and its variations on the 15th May regarding the day before 14th May.

Temperature variations Spain 16 May 2015 by Diego Fdez-Sevilla

Map of extreme foreseen temperatures and its variations on the 16th May regarding the day before 15th May 2015.

Starting from Wednesday May 20th polar-maritime air masses will flow towards Spain, with drops in temperature being forecast reaching as low as 0ºC in some parts of the North of Spain (2m Temp Forecast GFS).


I believe that the Iberian peninsula can be a very relevant indicator for the potential evolution of global changes in atmospheric developments and climatic anomalies, due to its position in Latitude and conglomeration of contrasts in a relatively small space of climatic influences, from Oceanic and maritime in the West and East to continental from North Europe, and Africa in the South. Cold blasts have found their way South in Winter and burning Heat has no opposition moving North now 14th May. And these anomalies are not Solar related by activity or angle of incidence (see also Orbital Seasonality vs Kinetic Seasonality).

Follow up from previous posts:

This type of situations brings back some previous discussions addressed in several analyses in which I have pointed out the relevance of facing changes in the severity for the transition between climatic phases due to atmospheric alterations (see full index at timeline page).

From: New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Posted on

The theory that I have developed follows the work published previously by scientists  Judah CohenMasato Mori, Colin Summerhayes, Coumou and Ted Shepherd, whom all together supported the theory of that early snowfall over Asia increases albedo leading to heat retention in the atmosphere provoking Arctic ice to melt. Decreased snow cover decreases albedo and enhance heat absorption. Ultimately, the enhanced capacity of the Arctic to absorb heat would lead to “amplify” atmospheric heat absorption already being fuelled with GHGs. Such increase in atmospheric temperature would reduce the thermal contrast required for a strong jet stream and consequently originating disturbance in atmospheric weather patterns associated.

What I propose with my hypothesis is that Arctic Amplification is a consequence and not the trigger. That it is a symptom and not the cause.

What I am trying to highlight in my theory are the possible mechanisms which would explain: changes in albedo which support Arctic Amplification, early snowfalls in central Asia, Arctic ice cover meltdown and oceanic increases in salinity and ultimately, the origin of atmospheric blocking patterns and the pause in T raise unified in single principle: Increasing conc. of CO2 and water vapour induce a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation.

I am looking at the implications of having the Arctic circulation not “Amplifying” but “Absorbing” constant increases in atm CO2 and Water vapour. In my approach, instead of looking at what happens in the Arctic as the origin of a chain reaction, I look at what happens in the Arctic just as a side effect (with its own implications) in a wider process resultant from a reduction between the differential  gradients of energy driving the atmospheric global circulation, being water vapour the carrier of the energy being dispersed all over the atmosphere.”

Based on my theory, Greenhouse gases store energy which leads to an increase in  global temperature. This increase in T, altogether with synergistic effects from aerosols, allows more water vapor to be contained in the atmosphere, which, consequently, adds more energy into the atmosphere in form of latent heat and kinetic energy. Therefore, this increase in atmospheric energy being carried and distributed all over the hemisphere would infuse power into atmospheric patterns at the same time that it would also reduce the differential energetic gradient between cyclonic events and their surroundings in order to dissipate the energy carried within. Consequently, the energy of those cyclonic events (Low and High pressures) would persist throughout time, altitude and location. Such scenario would decrease the strength of barriers built upon steep differential gradients like the Polar Jet Stream. Furthermore, it would increase the frequency in which masses of warm air from low latitudes would get introduced in polar regions as well as masses of polar air would move across the Jet Stream, across latitudes, moving further South. Following the 2nd Thermodynamics law on entropy, having decreased the differential in gradient of energy between cyclonic events and its surroundings would increase the life span of those events. That would induce an increase in the accumulation of energy in form of latent heat, water vapour and wind strength. Such build-up in power, without dissipating the energy contained within, would give cyclonic events enough strength to interfere with atmospheric barriers like the Polar Jet Stream, breaking it, and also, would allow them to adopt locations that originate “blocking patterns.”


“Even considering that such exchange it has been always there throughout past Winters, if my theory is right, this pattern of unsteady Jet Stream and masses of air crossing through would start earlier in Autumn (seasonal transition to Winter) and resume closer to summer (until all warm masses of air cover high latitudes homogeneously, coalescence).

The transition from Summer to Winter and from Winter to Summer will be a transition between “more frequent exchange of masses of air” to “less frequent”. Instead of having a constant gradual change in atmospheric conditions, we will have pockets of air moving across the Jet stream defining the weather wherever they move.”

From: Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Posted on February 10, 2015. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1975.7602

(updated 3/4/2018. with a contextualization of the short paragraph originally here written in order to help the reader whom might not prefer to read the analysis in full.

In October 2014 a new theoretical approach was proposed in the line of research published in this blog able to explain changes in atmospheric dynamics capable of triggering a climatic drift. In order to contrast the accuracy of the assessments and conclusions offered with real time developments I revisited those by looking at the atmospheric dynamics observed throughout the Winter 2014-15.

The results reached support the validity of the theoretical approach proposed and the foreseen consequences:  “The common feature observed by the theory of Arctic Amplification and the theory of Energetic Gradients (proposed in the present line of research) share one single form of perspective over the behaviour of the Polar Jet Stream: the weakening of the Jet Stream would allow more frequent intrusions of masses of air from both sides, inducing sudden and extreme changes in weather patterns for Northern and Southern latitudes. Once the barrier weakens, “warm and wet” currents of air would reach further North being dragged by High pressures moving at higher latitudes without the opposition of the Jet Stream.”

However, the theory of Energetic Gradients instead of seeing albedo or SST at Arctic altitudes as the trigger for atmospheric dynamics offers a new perspective where *Such dynamic are the result of an increase in energy being dispersed (water vapour) and contained (Permanent Greenhouse Gases and aerosols) throughout the atmosphere using water vapour as the carrier. Ultimately, mid-latitudinal “convective forcing” dominates over “orbital configurations” inducing an increase in the mixing ratio between masses of air previously compartmentalised through latitude and altitude. The changing force driving such energetic pulse could come from seeing an increase in the pool of energy in its free state as consequence of human activities transforming the global environment in its three phases; gaseous, liquid and solid. end update. 3/4/2018)

From: Drops of Weather. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

“The implications raising from such type of atmospheric behaviour are yet to be fully understood. To begin with, the possibility of having sudden intrusions of masses of air inducing extreme changes in meteorological variables might affect the life cycle of the biota since the most of it, plants and animals, follows changes on Temp and Humidity suffering behavioural, hormonal and physiological alterations. Also it must be considered the rapid respond to those variables from species with a quick metabolism. Many of which, insects and fungi, might suffer blooming rates of growth coinciding with a vulnerable stage in the development of other species like crops and wild plants. This scenario opens questions which I believe are worthy to be included in a debate about “the possibility of its increasing frequency in the near future”, also discussed in previous posts  (UPGRADED 11 March2015) Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla.)

From: Met Office. The Recent Storms and Floods in the UK (Feb 2014) (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Posted on

Throughout my career I have studied and discussed the influence of atmospheric water vapour in the aerodynamic behaviour of one particle being part of the aerosol, pollen grains. In my research I already pointed out the need for further research about the implications of the biological atmospheric particle load by being involved in climate events through the microphysics of cloud formation due to the nuclei drop activity of such particles. Aerodynamics_of_pollen_grains_involved_in_sampling_efficiency. Thesis_by_Diego_Fernandez-Sevilla (2007)

Additionally, I also performed research about the impact that environmental heat increase and retention has in the atmospheric biological load due to the urban heat island effect. The results point out that the biological cycles of the biota are altered increasing the duration of their “pollen release” period (due to prolonged warm climatic conditions). The scenario created by the urban heat island effect has been already applied to extrapolate global climatic alterations in the biota suggesting an increase in plant performance (metabolism) inducing more bioaerosol released into the atmosphere.

I first presented this work at conferences in Turku 2008. Later published as: Assessment between pollen seasons in areas with different urbanization level related to local vegetation sources and differences in allergen exposure. Aerobiologia, Vol 26-1, 1-14. (2010)

Putting together my own experience in researching bioaerosols, my understanding of environmental processes and the findings by others I find enough dots connected to be very alert about the synergistic effects that the biota play and suffers as part of the whole system. For more about this topic you can check the links below and the posts from the categories at the top of this page (e.g. posts addressing the synergies between atmospheric events and Biological productivity.)

May 13, 2016 Another roller-coaster of temperatures in South Europe. Spain (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) May 13, 2015

… (see full article following the link here)


March 3, 2016 Extracted from the publication: Seasonality Spring 2016. Continuous follow-up on my previous research assessing atmospheric dynamics. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD) (follow link here to see whole publication)  pdf DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2833.8968

Seasonality is a characteristic of a time series in which the data experiences regular and predictable changes which recur every calendar year. Any predictable change or pattern in a time series that recurs or repeats over a one-year period can be said to be seasonal.

The current situation through Feb/March 2016 in the atmospheric dynamics driving seasonality from Winter to Spring is bringing some interesting points around, and many of them are consistent with the developments expected from the line of research followed in this blog. So I want to share in this post the main principles which drive the standard interpretation of seasonality, the new outcomes from current conditions and the coherences found with my previous research published in this blog (and researchgate).

Seasonality as we know it

Every planet in our solar system has seasons. But the seasons that occur on other planets are extremely different from the traditional spring, summer, fall and winter weather that we experience here on Earth. Despite what may seem like great variations in temperature, weather and climactic conditions in different places around the globe, in reality there actually is little variation in Earth’s overall climate. Why?

There are several factors that affect the weather on the planets. Those factors are defined by two major characteristics.

The astrological interactions derived from the planet’s (Earth) position, shape and motion:

  • the tilt of the planet’s axis (which causes the seasons),
  • the shape of its orbit around the sun,
  • its average distance from the Sun,
  • and, the length of its day as result of how fast it rotates over the planet’s axis.

And, the presence/absence and composition of a significant atmosphere.

Earth’s axis is tilted about 23 degrees, causing the latitude of the Sun to vary from 23 degrees north of the equator at the beginning of northern summer to 23 degrees south of the equator at the beginning of northern winter. On Earth, that tilt is the primary reason for the differences in weather we observe between summer and winter. Planets with smaller tilts might have smaller weather variations; planets with larger tilts could have more extreme variations.


Our orbit is nearly circular, so there is little variation in Earth’s overall climate, averaged over both northern and southern hemispheres. But other planets have more elliptical orbits, and therefore their seasonal variations in weather are much different than what we experience. We are much further from the Sun than Mercury or Venus, but closer than the other six planets. Generally, weather variations are more pronounced for those planets closer to the Sun.


The terms “summer” and “winter” tend to be Earth-oriented terms but can be applied to the other planets as well. When the North Pole of any planet is tilted toward the sun, astronomers call it the Summer Solstice; when the South Pole is tilted toward the sun it’s called the Winter Solstice.

Seasonal Climate

The climate of our planet is the result of three main factors: solar energy, the greenhouse effect, and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. In addition, the geographic and seasonal variations in solar energy are determined by the curvature of the Earth, the inclination of its axis and its orbit around the Sun. These factors produce different climatic zones, which in turn affect the distribution of plant, animal and human populations. (ref link)


The Sun is the central star of our solar system, which consists of 8 planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.The “surface” of the Sun is very hot, with a temperature of about 6,000 degrees Celsius. Due to its position, neither too near nor too far from the Sun, the Earth is the only planet in the solar system that can host abundant life, in particular because its average surface temperature of 15 degrees Celsius enables the presence of liquid water. Solar energy and the presence of an atmosphere are the two main elements that condition the Earth’s temperature. Like the glass panels of a greenhouse, certain gases that are naturally present in the atmosphere, notably water vapor and carbon dioxide, trap heat from the sun, maintaining this mild average temperature on the planet’s surface. This natural phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect. Without it, the surface temperature of the Earth would be –18 degrees Celsius and life, if any life could be sustained, would be quite different.

Our atmosphere’s natural greenhouse effect is thus a beneficial phenomenon, without which life as we know it would not be possible. The greenhouse effect is often mentioned in the news as a dangerous phenomenon, but what really is dangerous is the intensification of the natural greenhouse effect.

Current conditions (march 3, 2016). When the Old news become New news. Follow-up from my previous research.

The current situation through Feb/March 2016 in the atmospheric dynamics driving seasonality from Winter to Spring is bringing some interesting points around, and many of them are consistent with the developments expected from the line of research followed in this blog.

The coldest part of a day cycle comes after the higher amount of hours in the dark, just before sunrise. The coldest part of the orbital cycle at the NH should be when we crossed over the winter solstice in Dec, and yet there is not enough differential in thermal contrast from low temp in the Arctic to build up a steady Polar Jet Stream.

Wind strengh 250 hPa Polar Jet Stream 2016-03-01

Wind strength 250 hPa Polar Jet Stream 2016-03-01

T2m anomaly from 2016-03-01

Temperature anomaly 2m from 2016-03-01

One repeated feature in atmospheric dynamics which I have observed since the beginning of my research in 2013 is the frequent intrusion of masses of air trespassing from both sides the barrier which should represent the Polar Jet Stream.

It is becoming a frequent scenario to see the displacement of cold air from the Arctic due to convective forcing from warmer masses of air getting into high latitudes and altitudes. The consequence from such dynamics is the alteration in the form, length and transition between seasons.

Follow-up from previous research published in this blog

This type of situations brings back some previous discussions addressed in several posts, in which I have point out the relevance of facing changes in the severity for the transition between climatic phases due to atmospheric alterations.

Based on my observations and analyses since 2013, in 2014 I made an assessment over the atmospheric dynamics driving the weather systems across the NH which led me to propose a theoretical approach which could explain new developments in climatic drifts.

In the following paragraphs I share bits of some of the most relevant publications addressing the coherence found between those and the current conditions. The whole work behind this piece of research is built by 120 posts addressing synergistic interactions from a multidisciplinary approach. Altogether they make a Theoretical Framework, a Conceptual Framework and an Assessment Framework on global environmental issues, addressing methodological approaches to fill in or find out gaps of knowledge, the title of this blog.

Therefore you should follow links or explore the blog in order to get deeper insight on any aspect you feel missing (from the influence of solar activity, aerosols, human waste, etc…). Also you will find videos with graphic representation  of my work at youtube.

March 3, 2016 continues from the publication: Seasonality Spring 2016. Continuous follow-up on my previous research assessing atmospheric dynamics. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) (follow link here to see whole publication)

Follow-up from previous research presented in this blog

From A Climate “Between Waters” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla).

I believe that the present weather events, altogether with the tornado seen in Venice on July, represent some of the new “Drops of Weather” coming over to say that the Summer, as we know it, is coming to an end.

The reason behind it seems to be the sporadic and unpredictable behaviour of the Jet stream, which not only is wobbly in latitude, but also in the vertical profile of the atmosphere. Accordingly, we can see that when it comes to lower levels from 300hPa induces alterations in the thermodynamical behaviour of the tropospheric circulation. In turn, when this cold air touches the lower level of our atmosphere, activates the energy accumulated in the Water vapour contained in it as latent heat, delivering new forms of energy; kinetic provoking strong winds, electrostatic generating lightnings and potential carried in the mass of all the water coming from its gaseous state into liquid or solid precipitation.

I have already discussed what is my theory about what it is happening that it is generating such a wobbly jet stream in latitude and altitude. This theory was published in a previous post and it points out the incorporation of masses of water vapour into polar latitudes as consequence of CO2 forcing as the cause wearing out the strength of the Polar Jet Stream.

I also have suggested that such incorporation of masses of water vapour into Polar Latitudes follow channels which are linked with persistent cyclonic events in the Atlantic and the Pacific. The present patterns seen in the circulation over the Pacific and the Atlantic are consistent with those proposed in this theory.

Ultimately, if this theory is right and weather patterns are incorporating water vapour into Polar latitudes, it would affect:

    • The strength of the Polar Jet Stream becoming wobbly from the bottom up, from tropospheric circulation forcing instead of being from the configuration of the stratospheric Polar vortex, (more here)
    • Introduction of water vapour into Arctic Polar latitudes would decrease temperature gradients in the Pole reducing ice and snow cover, (more here)
    • that would induce ice melting which in turn would affect SST and Oceanic circulation in the Atlantic and Pacific. That would explain the cold anomaly in SST in the North Atlantic, thus the AMOC and global thermohialine circulation going around the Antarctic and arriving at the Pacific.(more here)
    • Arctic Polar masses of air getting warmed up would become involved in translatitudinal circulation from the Atlantic and the Pacific through the Arctic, in a breathing like cycle. That would open a new channel for balancing gradients of atmospheric pressure between the atmospheric masses of air above both Oceans. That would explain the synchronicity between Low pressures observed in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, (more here).
  • An interconnection between Atlantic and Pacific atmospheric circulation through the Arctic would affect Equatorial winds. That would have an impact over the distribution of SST being dominated by them, being the most relevant the ENSO.(more here and here)
  • Furthermore,  new channels breaking the restriction of keeping warm masses of air bellow Polar circulation would release the thermodynamical limits for equatorial latitudes to absorb water and heat, therefore, increasing thermal conductivity towards upper latitudes. That would explain heat waves moving upward in latitude.(more here and here)
  • At the same time, incorporating the possibility for subtropical circulation to occupy the volume of space at Polar latitudes would allow the global circulation to absorb more energy without steep increases in temperature thanks to the extra volume added to be occupied.(more here)
  • An homogenization in the amount of energy carried in the atmosphere by water vapour would induce a decrease between gradients of energy. That would allow atmospheric events to persist in location and time due to the reduced capacity of the atmosphere to dissipate its energy.(more here)
  • The amount of energy being accommodated by the atmosphere would behave like electricity, being tamed by the capacity of the surroundings to absorb and conduct it. But, like a short circuit, the energy contained in the atmosphere, could overwhelm the capacity for the surroundings to cope with it in a smoothly manner, triggering abrupt discharges from energy in latent heat form carried by the water vapour, into potential energy carried by the masses of water in form of hail and  rain, and kinetic energy generating strong winds. All those forms of energy capable of decimating crops, houses and even killing animals as we have seen in some videos in this post.(more here)

Most definitely, I believe that the climate in our Earth is what it lies between waters. Between cold waters and warms waters, between waters in the atmosphere or those in the ground inland or at the oceans. Altogether, our climate lies on those processes moving energy between waters in the form of gas, liquid or solid.

Data available supporting previous assessments

An international team of university and NASA scientists examined the relationship between changes in surface temperature and vegetation growth from 45 degrees north latitude to the Arctic Ocean. Results show temperature and vegetation growth at northern latitudes now resemble those found 4 degrees to 6 degrees of latitude farther south as recently as 1982.

“Higher northern latitudes are getting warmer, Arctic sea ice and the duration of snow cover are diminishing, the growing season is getting longer and plants are growing more,” said Ranga Myneni of Boston University’s Department of Earth and Environment. “In the north’s Arctic and boreal areas, the characteristics of the seasons are changing, leading to great disruptions for plants and related ecosystems.”

The study was published March 10, 2013 in the journal Nature Climate Change.

Of the 10 million square miles (26 million square kilometers) of northern vegetated lands, 34 to 41 percent showed increases in plant growth (green and blue), 3 to 5 percent showed decreases in plant growth (orange and red), and 51 to 62 percent showed no changes (yellow) over the past 30 years. Satellite data in this visualization are from the AVHRR and MODIS instruments, which contribute to a vegetation index that allows researchers to track changes in plant growth over large areas. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

The missing links

The transition from facing changes at a regional scale into changes at global scale only takes to have enough regional changes to coalescence. And that applies to all parts of the ecosystem, changes in the liquid phase (Oceans), the solid or terrestrial and the gaseous/the atmosphere.

What we see is a pattern in thermodynamic circulation and biotic reaction.

Plant cover over the Arctic will increase the potential for the atmosphere to retain water vapour through evapotranspiration so it becomes a positive feedback reaction towards extending the influence of the warmer masses of air transported from mid latitudes into polar circulation.

That will increase the amount of energy that the atmosphere can hold and spread over the whole Hemisphere and beyond Equatorial limits extending to the South Hemisphere. There, water vapour will face the contrast from the non-existence of continentality so ice would increase like frost over the Antarctica. However, the Ocean circulation will be affected interacting with such transport creating a new scenario full of contrasts.

But that is just an opinion, my opinion.

About “applying Stefan Boltzmann calculations to explain that the whole radiative forcing greenhouse conjecture fails to explain reality”. I have to say the following:

“Thermal energy is being transferred by diffusion”. Heat is thermal energy. It can be transferred from one place to another by conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction and convection involve particles, radiation involves electromagnetic waves. Heat can only be transferred between “existent” molecules. Without them, like in out-space, there is not temperature or heat transference. Our atmosphere contains heat because it contains molecular compounds absorbing and transferring heat. The case of GHGs is that they are among the most thermal conductive molecular compounds found in the atmosphere. It is like cooking dry food. You need a substance to transfer the heat to cook aliments. Oil is good but water gets the heat inside the food cause its heat properties. There is no diffusion of heat in a vacuum of thermal flask. Thus it is important to identify the type and concentration of atmospheric gases.

“May be” the Stefan Boltzmann calculations can not be applied to explain the mean surface temperature of a body which is not homogeneous in composition in any of its parts, solid-liquid and gaseous, none-uniform on its surface albedo, thermodynamically active on its core and atmosphere, irregularly shaped, not flat neither a perfect sphere, in constant motion and with 50% of its surface solar radiated meanwhile the other 50% is not. All those contrasts in the horizontal and the vertical assessments are relevant. Maybe the stratification of heat could be explain by S-B for a uniform body like the Sun, and yet At 20,000-25,000 km away from the solar surface the corona has an average temperature of 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 million degrees Celsius. But the density is very low, about 1 billion times less dense than water.

When it is applied on this matter the idea of that “The surface is cooled by GHG’s in the atmosphere. It is the atmosphere itself that is warmed as infrared light, reflected from earth’s surface, travels back toward space. This reflected light is absorbed by GHG’s and the air is warmed. This is the heat trapping property of GHG’s”

I would say that such point is similar to what happens by role played by sweat in cooling the body by allowing water to evaporate off the skin. The problem from GHGs is that their presence above the earth’s surface reduce the difference in temperature between them and the surface. In that way the reduction in the difference reduces the capacity of the atmosphere to diffuse the heat received at the surface. That creates positive feedback loop which moves towards increasing the amount of heat being contained in both parts of the column.

… (see full assessment following the link to the publication)

November 17, 2016 Arctic Amplification versus Arctic Absorption (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)

See it full following the link at the title.

December 17, 2016 Extract from the publication: Orbital Seasonality vs Kinetic Seasonality. A Change Triggered from Changing the Order of The Factors (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)

Being CO2 a molecular element enhancing atmospheric thermal conductance, and aerosols acting as droplet nuclei in cloud formation, their combined effect altogether with alterations in the water cycles and energy flows due to anthropogenic activity would increase the capacity for the atmosphere to absorb, contain and disperse water vapour. But more importantly, this water vapour would incorporate an increase of energy into the atmospheric pool which it would affect atmospheric developments such as the strength, paths  and life periods of lows and highs as much as those events concentrating energetic discharges in form of precipitation, wind and heat or cold waves.

The outcome from such assessment foresees an spreading of energy through the atmosphere in Latitude and Altitude, driving a climatic drift which will affect life cycles in animals and plants as well as in soil degradation and water availability.

The assessments presented through the series of publications shared in the line of research published in this blog apply a point of view which considers an order of factors driven by thermodynamical principles. As the process followed in the order of the steps taken to cook the recipe to make an environment.

All these assessments foresee a change in the progression of Seasonality from Orbital Driven to Kinetic driven, considering kinetic an expression of the energy being driving the seasonal climatic regimes around the latitudes and longitudes.

… (see full assessment following the link to the publication)



Current state of the atmospheric dynamics March 2017


Maximum temperature variation from 8 to 15 March, 2017 in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Map of extreme foreseen temperatures and its variations regarding the day before.

News from the weather developments triggered under the presented atmospheric dynamics.


  • 9th March 2017 presenting the actual developments over the Iberian peninsula and South of Europe:

Looking For Spring Warmth? Head To Spain (But Not Greece) – Blog by Nick Finnis –

Thursday will feel fairly spring-like across southern parts of the UK, especially in the sunshine, with temperatures reaching the mid-teens, perhaps a few spots hitting 16C.

But if you are after more summer-like warmth in early March, you don’t have to look far afield to tropical climes. It will turn unusually warm across much of Iberia by the end of the week, with temperatures forecast to hit the high 20s across parts of southern and eastern Spain on Friday and Saturday, mid-20s widely elsewhere for Spain and Portugal. Even southern France will see temperatures creep into the low 20s on Friday.

Friday afternoon

Saturday afternoon

Although not as warm as Iberia, northern and western Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily reaching 20-21C in Friday, though back into the high teens on Saturday.

The anomalous early Spring warmth more akin to late Spring is being brought by a dome of warm air characterised by high air thickness spreading north across Iberia and the western Mediterranean in response to an upper trough digging south near the Azores at the end of the week and southwesterly jet ahead of it dragging sub-tropical warmth north.

But don’t head any further east for sunshine and warmth, i.e. SE Europe and even western Turkey, because a slow-moving area of low pressure centred over Turkey will pull an increasingly strong and chilly north to northeasterly wind across the Balkans and Greece, along with outbreaks of heavy rain or frequent heavy showers – with temperatures suppressed into single figures across interior parts of the Balkans and Greece. Some large rainfall totals by Sunday too across parts of SE Europe.

WARMER THAN SPAIN: Britain to rival IBIZA as temperatures SOAR to 64F from tomorrow PARTS of the UK will be as warm as Spanish hotspots Ibiza, Barcelona and Madrid as temperatures soar from tomorrow.

The UK could see one of the warmest days of the year so far, with Southerners set to see the mercury peaking in the late teens – almost 8C warmer than the average 10.3C (50.54F) for the area at this time of year. The Met Office said those in the South East could be basking in highs of 17C (62.6F) or 18C (64.4F) – around the maximum daytime temperatures forecast for today in Ibiza, Barcelona and Madrid.

Temperatures will have to soar higher than the 18.3C (65F) recorded on February 20 in Northolt, north-west London, and Kew Gardens, south-west London, to become the hottest day of 2017. 

The average maximum temperature for this time of year, taking in all of the UK, is 8.9C (48.02F) – significantly lower than highs reached Monday.

Murlough in County Down reached 15.9C (60.62F), the Giant’s Causeway hit 15.8C (60.44F), Usk in Monmouthshire enjoyed 15.4C (59.72F), and Saint James’s Park in central London reached 15.3C (59.54F). 

Towards the end of the week temperatures will fall but remain just above the average maximum highs for mid-March.

  • 14 MAR 2017 – 11:09 CET Alicante. Spain. Alicante left reeling from the deluge of the century Record downpour floods ground-floor premises and shuts down schools; no victims reported.

The Spanish coastal city of Alicante on Tuesday morning began cleanup duties following the biggest downpour in recent memory. Rainfall in the popular Mediterranean destination was a whopping 137 liters per square meter (equivalent to 137mm), half of which came down in the space of just two hours. That makes the past 24 hours the city’s third-rainiest day in the last 80 years, and the rainiest 24-hour period so far in the 21st century, according to AEMET, the Spanish meteorology agency. All of Spain was under a weather advisory on Monday for adverse weather conditions that brought rain, wind and snow to many parts of the country.

The city’s weather records, which go back to 1934, show that the all-time record was set on September 30, 1997 when precipitation was 270.3 liters per square meter. The next biggest rainfall was logged at 233.1 liters per square meter on October 20, 1982. The third was last night.

Water pouring down into a street in Alicante.
Water pouring down into a street in Alicante. EFE

AEMET noted that for the first time, such a big downpour did not take place in the fall. Average rainfall for March is only 23 liters.

The rain was all the more surprising as only three days earlier, on March 10, Alicante had shattered the record for high winter temperatures: it was 32.5ºC in the city.

[Alicante, now: Avenida de Denia]

The Valencia region had not experienced such a weather rollercoaster since 1985, when January and March were very cold while February was unseasonably warm, said Jorge Olcina, head of the Climatology Lab at the University of Alicante.

[Santa Faz Monastery and square]

All of Spain was under a weather advisory on Monday for adverse weather conditions that brought rain, wind and snow to many parts of the country.

La previsión de @ElTiempo_tve la cuenta en directo @Zubiaurre_TVE. Forecast

¿Por qué se originó esta tromba de agua histórica en Alicante? Nos lo cuenta @abarniol_tve. How did it form the downpour at Alicante?

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The work which I present in my blog is just a chapter in my career. At Feb 2017, it has reached an stage in which its framework has been defined and it has been applied in follow-ups delivering the subsequent conclusions.

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Since October 2013 I have been publishing pieces of research studying the behaviour of the Polar Jet Stream and the weather events associated as well as the implications derived into atmospheric dynamics and environmental synergies.

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More assessments presenting chronologically the line of research published in this blog can be accessed in the category Framework and Timeline.

For anybody interested in the posts related with this discussion here I leave you those more relevant in chronological order (there are comments bellow some of them. Please check them out, updated 09th Dec 2016):


About Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

The work here presented has no economic or institutional support. Please consider to make a donation to support the means for making sustainable the energy, time and resources required. Also any sponsorship or mentoring interested would be welcome. Intellectual Property This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Citing This Site: "Title", published online "Month"+"Year" retrieved on "Month""Day", "Year" from By Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. Or by using its DOI at ResearchGate. More guidance on citing this web as a source can be found at NASA webpage:! For those publications missing at the ResearchGate profile vinculated with this project DOIs can be generated on demand by request at email: d.fdezsevilla(at) **Author´s profile: Born in 1974. Bachelor in General Biology, Masters degree "Licenciado" in Environmental Sciences (2001, Spain). PhD in Aerobiology (2007, UK). Lived, acquired training and worked in Spain, UK, Germany and Poland. I have shared the outcome from my work previous to 2013 as scientific speaker in events held in those countries as well as in Switzerland and Finland. After 12 years performing research and working in institutions linked with environmental research and management, in 2013 I found myself in a period of transition searching for a new position or funding to support my own line of research. In the current competitive scenario, in order to demonstrate my capacities instead of just moving my cv waiting for my next opportunity to arrive, I decided to invest my energy and time in opening my own line of research sharing it in this blog. In March 2017 the budget reserved for this project has ended and its weekly basis time frame discontinued until new forms of economic and/or institutional support are incorporated into the project. The value of the data and the original nature of the research presented in this platform and at LinkedIn has proved to be worthy of consideration by the scientific community as well as for publication in scientific journals. However, without a position as member of an institution, it becomes very challenging to be published. I hope that this handicap do not overshadow the value of my achievements and that the Intellectual Property Rights generated with the license of attribution attached are respected and considered by the scientist involved in similar lines of research. **Any comment and feedback aimed to be constructive is welcome as well as any approach exploring professional opportunities to be part of.** In this blog I publish pieces of research focused on addressing relevant environmental questions. Furthermore, I try to break the barrier that academic publications very often offer isolating scientific findings from the general public. In that way I address those topics which I am familiar with, thanks to my training in environmental research, making them available throughout my posts. (see "Framework and Timeline" for a complete index). At this moment, 2018, I am living in Spain with no affiliation attachments. Free to relocate geographically worldwide. If you feel that I could be a contribution to your institution, team and projects, don´t hesitate in contact me at d.fdezsevilla (at) or consult my profile at LinkedIn, ResearchGate and Also, I'd appreciate information about any opportunity that you might know and believe it could match with my aptitudes. The conclusions and ideas expressed in each post as part of my own creativity are part of my Intellectual Portfolio and are protected by Intellectual Property Laws. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial conditions. In citing my work from this website, be sure to include the date of access and DOIs found at the Framework and Timeline page and ResearchGate. (c)Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD, 2018. Filling in or/and Finding Out the gaps around. Publication accessed 20YY-MM-DD at
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2 Responses to March 2017 Atmospheric Dynamics affecting the Iberian Peninsula. Follow-up from previous research by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD

  1. João Danune says:

    Buenas Noches Estimadov Diego Gracis por los papers, ainda no teive tiempo para ler, porrque esta semana foi mui dura par mim, com muchas reuniones, simósios e conferências, ahora empeçarei a ler este fim de semana, los titulos son mui apelativos, despues de ler escreveri algo, muchas gracias Diego, que tenga un bom fim de semana, saludos cordiales JDanune

    On Fri, Mar 10, 2017 at 8:02 PM, Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. wrote:

    > Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. posted: “March 2017 Iberian Peninsula Follow-up > from previous research by Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD In 2014 the line of > research defined by the assessments published in this blog could not be > verified by peer review articles due to the absence of them applying simil” >


  2. Pingback: 8th August 2017. Weather analyses and Climatic implications. Follow-up on previous assessments and real time developments over the NH, South and Central Europe By Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD | Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

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