Environmental Questions and Answers for Petrol Fans (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)

Environmental Questions and Answers for Petrol Fans (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)

I like engineering, wherever I see it. May be I like it because I see it everywhere. So, even though I am a Biologist, and not an engineer, I would like to make an attempt to address a question which I have seen too many times unresolved, from an engineering point of view. And any one can add their corrections if they feel like it.

Doesn’t more CO2 mean more plant Growth?

NO. Same as more fuel in the tank of your car does not mean your engine goes faster. Similarly, more fuel getting into your engine does not enhance its performance unless you increase also the amount of oxygen (or Nitro if you like) which is required for the fuel to burn and trigger the internal explosion. Furthermore, if you increase the combustion rate (or power) in your engine, you better strengthen accordingly the engine heads and block to support the increase in the stress that the materials have to support. Furthermore, you will need to increase the performance of the cooling system and oil lubrication, because more explosions will produce more friction and heat. And overall, Don’t Let Your Engine Outpace Your Chassis and Break Power.

So, in the same manner, plants use CO2 as engines use petrol. And face the same limitations. CO2 is just one element. Increasing its concentration will make available the potential for enhancing photosynthesis, which demands an increase in the performance of the whole “metabolism” (internal combustion) sustaining the process. That means, the plant requires, for instance, more water (equivalent to oxygen in combustion, H2O combines with CO2 to make molecules, “sugars”, CnHnOn chains) and use them as bricks building the material from which plants are made. But plants, like humans do not survive only with oxygen and water (CO2 and water in the case of plants), they also need other elements, essential nutrients. And, similarly as with the performance of an engine, the access to all those elements and the processes managing their interaction have to be in balance in order to make it work consistently. If you build a greenhouse over a terrain and you try to grow any plant based on only CO2 and Temperature, you will not go far. If you want for your greenhouse to be profitable you will have to invest in infrastructure to monitor and control air temperature, humidity and CO2 as well as constant supply of nutrients to equilibrate the demands from boosting the metabolism of your plants. Otherwise, they will grow showing anomalies in their development. The same as if you want to change the engine in your car by one more powerful, you will have to adjust the whole car, and your wallet, to the new demands.

(Some related reading from others:

  • Reduce greenhouse costs. Source
  • Comparison and Cost Analysis of Growing Hops in a Greenhouse versus and Outside Environment. Source.)

From there on you can make your own assessments. It does not matter if you are a lawyer working as a waiter or as a minister in any government, if you see the analogy, you will easily understand why there are different plants in different parts of the world or just in different parts of your surroundings. Like different cars are made to perform in different surfaces and terrains, different plants are also designed to perform in different conditions. If those conditions change, it adds more stress in their design.

Do plants overheat from stress?

Yes. They will take more water from the soils in order to refresh their internal parts and increase evapotranspiration. If there is not enough water in the soils, they will collapse.

Will they get stressed if there is more CO2 but not other supplies?

Yes, if only CO2 is increased, it will demand more H2O from soils and the atmosphere as well as more nutrients to keep upgrading the machinery from the increasing performance demanded for all the collateral systems (vascular system, roots system, foliage system, structural growth, …).

Doesn’t more plant Growth mean capture of more CO2?

Only if it happens in equilibrium with the rest of the ecosystem. IF plant growth overtakes nutrients and water supplies it will collapse and not even reach maturity. Plant growth, like an engine, can consume more CO2 equally to as an engine can consume more fuel, but it does not mean it will do it more efficiently.

Doesn’t capture of more CO2 mean less available CO2?

At some extent yes, but, the same as consuming more fuel means less available fuel. How much CO2 is required to be consumed by plants in order to feel the difference? It all depends on how much CO2 is available and how much is captured, and retained, by plants. If plants capture CO2 but they do not retain it cause they die and release their Carbon material due to decomposition or combustion, we will not feel the difference in the equation.

How many cubic miles of just “Peat” and equivalent captured CO2 is there on the earth that have been there for thousands of years? Doesn’t that mean there will be a natural balancing point? What is that balance point?

Time. If there is not enough time to counterbalance the rate of emissions of CO2 with the time of permanence of CO2 inactive in a fixed form, the concentration of CO2 will keep high.

Which also begs the question, “Why are we converting naturally captured CO2 in plant life into free CO2 molecules by burning instead of taking free CO2 and converting them into fuel?

That is a good question. It would just keep the concentrations equivalent to the energy used. Which it would open a new question. How much energy is efficiently used from emitting CO2? 50% maybe? Nope.

Only about 14%–30% of the energy from the fuel you put in a conventional vehicle is used to move it down the road. The rest of the energy is lost to engine and driveline inefficiencies or used to power accessories. (EPA). In gasoline-powered vehicles, most of the fuel’s energy is lost in the engine, primarily as heat. Smaller amounts of energy are lost through engine friction, pumping air into and out of the engine, and combustion inefficiency.

So I keep my futuristics hopes in enhancing the efficiency of transferring the most of the energy harvested from any source into work.

Image capture of a question I asked through my account on twitter to the commentators in a National TV channel over a f1 training session. The question was about how much freedom was available to play with the distribution of weight in the cars between different circuits.

Don´t take me wrong. I love driving anything mechanical. I would love to have the opportunity of driving any powerful vehicle in any terrain and surface, ships in the oceans and I always had fascination for helicopters (I would love to learn to pilot those). But I just don´t mind if the power comes from electrolysis of water. What I care about is the waste produced from the release and transference of energy to make work.

I am a methodologists, I study the best methodology enabling us to understand and perform in any activity with an aim. The bigger concern for me is not the colour of the result, but the purity of it.  In climatic assessments I don’t have a side. I just look at the methodology applied and search for the coherence behind when contrasted with the discussion that the results generate.

And this post is just aimed to simplify with an analogy what it concerns to CO2 and plants when grow in a greenhouse maintained by nobody.

I have already explained my assessment over the North hemisphere as part of a process in expansion from mid-latitudes. Now, through the Southern winter, we can see also anomalies in tempt entering Antarctica. I can only repeat what I have said in previous assessments in atmospheric developments. The mixing ratio is increasing and it is not going to follow the same pattern through time.

 More on this topic:

SOILS. The Skeleton Holding The Muscle On Our Ecosystems (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.) Published 9 December 2015

Plant growth, CO2, Soil and Nutrients. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.) Published 31 March 2016

External publications:

Managing uncertainty in soil carbon feedbacks to climate change

Mark A. BradfordWilliam R. WiederGordon B. BonanNoah FiererPeter A. Raymond &Thomas W. Crowther (Source)

Planetary warming may be exacerbated if it accelerates loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere. This carbon-cycle–climate feedback is included in climate projections. Yet, despite ancillary data supporting a positive feedback, there is limited evidence for soil carbon loss under warming. The low confidence engendered in feedback projections is reduced further by the common representation in models of an outdated knowledge of soil carbon turnover. ‘Model-knowledge integration’ — representing in models an advanced understanding of soil carbon stabilization — is the first step to build confidence. This will inform experiments that further increase confidence by resolving competing mechanisms that most influence projected soil-carbon stocks. Improving feedback projections is an imperative for establishing greenhouse gas emission targets that limit climate change.

Geosciences Column: The World’s soils are under threat. By Laura Roberts-Artal July 22, 2016. (Source)

An increasing global population means that we are more dependant than ever on soils.

Soils are crucial to securing our future supplies of water, food, as well as aiding adaptation to climate change and sustaining the planet’s biosphere; yet with the decrease in human labour dedicated to working the land, never have we been more out of touch with the vital importance of this natural resource.

Now, the first-ever comprehensive State of the World’s Soil Resources Report (SWRS), compiled by the Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS), aims to shine a light on this essential non-renewable resource. The report outlines the current state of soils, globally, and what the major threats facing it are. These and other key findings of the report are summarised in a recent paper of the EGU’s open access Soil Journal.

The current outlook

Overall, the report deemed that the world’s soils are in fair to very poor condition, with regional variations.  The future doesn’t look bright: current projections indicate that the present situation will worsen unless governments, organisations and individuals come together to take concerted action.

Many of the drivers which contribute to soil changes are associated with population growth and the need to provide resources for the industrialisation and food security of growing societies. Climate change presents a significant challenge too, with factors such as increasing temperatures resulting in higher evaporation rates from soils and therefore affecting groundwater recharge rates, coming into play.

The three main threats to soils

Soil condition is threatened by a number of factors including compaction (which reduces large pore spaces between soil grains and restricts the flow of air and water into and through the soil), acidification, contamination, sealing (which results from the covering of soil through building of houses, roads and other urban development), waterlogging, salinization and losses of soil organic carbon (SOC).

Global assessment of the four main threats to soil by FAO regions. Taken from Montanarella, L., et al. 2016.

More assessments presenting the line of research published in this blog can be accessed chronologically in the category Framework and Timeline.

About Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

Data policy The products processed by "Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD" are made available to the public for educational and/or scientific purposes, without any fee on the condition that you credit "Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD" as the source. Copyright notice: © Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD 2013-2019 orcid: orcid.org/0000-0001-8685-0206 and the link to its source at diegofdezsevilla.wordpress or permanent DOI found at Reearchgate. Should you write any scientific publication on the results of research activities that use Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD products as input, you shall acknowledge the Diego Fdez-Sevilla's PhD Project in the text of the publication and provide an electronic copy of the publication (d.fdezsevilla@gmail.com). If you wish to use the Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD products in advertising or in any commercial promotion, you shall acknowledge the Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD Project and you must submit the layout to Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD for approval beforehand (d.fdezsevilla@gmail.com). The work here presented has no economic or institutional support. Please consider to make a donation to support the means for making sustainable the energy, time and resources required. Also any sponsorship or mentoring interested would be welcome. Intellectual Property This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. By Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. More guidance on citing this web as a source can be found at NASA webpage: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/bibliography/citations#! For those publications missing at the ResearchGate profile vinculated with this project DOIs can be generated on demand by request at email: d.fdezsevilla(at)gmail.com. **Author´s profile: Born in 1974. Bachelor in General Biology, Masters degree "Licenciado" in Environmental Sciences (2001, Spain). PhD in Aerobiology (2007, UK). Lived, acquired training and worked in Spain, UK, Germany and Poland. I have shared the outcome from my work previous to 2013 as scientific speaker in events held in those countries as well as in Switzerland and Finland. After 12 years performing research and working in institutions linked with environmental research and management, in 2013 I found myself in a period of transition searching for a new position or funding to support my own line of research. In the current competitive scenario, in order to demonstrate my capacities instead of just moving my cv waiting for my next opportunity to arrive, I decided to invest my energy and time in opening my own line of research sharing it in this blog. In March 2017 the budget reserved for this project has ended and its weekly basis time frame discontinued until new forms of economic and/or institutional support are incorporated into the project. The value of the data and the original nature of the research presented in this platform and at LinkedIn has proved to be worthy of consideration by the scientific community as well as for publication in scientific journals. However, without a position as member of an institution, it becomes very challenging to be published. I hope that this handicap do not overshadow the value of my achievements and that the Intellectual Property Rights generated with the license of attribution attached are respected and considered by the scientist involved in similar lines of research. **Any comment and feedback aimed to be constructive is welcome as well as any approach exploring professional opportunities.** In this blog I publish pieces of research focused on addressing relevant environmental questions. Furthermore, I try to break the barrier that academic publications very often offer isolating scientific findings from the general public. In that way I address those topics which I am familiar with, thanks to my training in environmental research, making them available throughout my posts. (see "Framework and Timeline" for a complete index). At this moment, 2019, I am living in Spain with no affiliation attachments. Free to relocate geographically worldwide. If you feel that I could be a contribution to your institution, team and projects, don´t hesitate in contact me at d.fdezsevilla (at) gmail.com or consult my profile at LinkedIn, ResearchGate and Academia.edu. Also, I'd appreciate information about any opportunity that you might know and believe it could match with my aptitudes. The conclusions and ideas expressed in each post as part of my own creativity are part of my Intellectual Portfolio and are protected by Intellectual Property Laws. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial conditions. In citing my work from this website, be sure to include the date of access and DOIs found at the Framework and Timeline page and ResearchGate. (c)Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD, 2018. Filling in or/and Finding Out the gaps around. Publication accessed 20YY-MM-DD at https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/ ***
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32 Responses to Environmental Questions and Answers for Petrol Fans (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.)

  1. Thanks Jaime for your feedback.


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