(Updated 22/Dec/14) New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)


(Upgraded 22 Dec 2014) New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)

(Citation. Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation. Blog “Filling in or Finding out”. http://www.diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com and DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4859.3440
2015-04-20 T 12:02:20 UTC)

(updated 30 June 2016. Two recent peer review publications (2016) agree with the assessments presented in the appraoch shared in this post and the ones following. See section “Communication and articles in agreement with the validity of this theory” at the bottom of this post. See the section “Framework and Timeline” of this blog to check the time line of this research.)

The theory of Arctic Amplification has introduced the considerations over feedback effects associated with temperature, water vapour and clouds due to changes in the surface albedo feedback—the increase in surface absorption of solar radiation when snow and ice retreat—often cited as the main contributor.

The theory that I have developed follows “in alignment” with the work published previously by scientists  Judah CohenMasato Mori, Colin Summerhayes, Coumou and Ted Shepherd. Their work supported the theory of that early snowfall over Asia increases albedo leading to heat retention in the atmosphere provoking Arctic ice to melt. Their approach point to decreasing snow cover as the cause diminishing albedo enhancing heat absorption. Ultimately, their approach theorize that such enhanced capacity of the Arctic to absorb heat would lead to “amplify” atmospheric heat absorption already being fuelled with GHGs. And therefore, such increase in atmospheric temperature would reduce the thermal contrast required for a strong jet stream and consequently originating disturbance in atmospheric weather patterns associated.

What I propose with my hypothesis is that the so called “Arctic Amplification” is a synchronic consequence altogether with other environmental phenomena (ENSO, NAO, etc…) and not the trigger. I defend that “Artic Amplification” is a symptom and not a causation of atmospheric dynamics. Arctic circulation does not amplify a process but on the contrary, it reflects the consequence of absorbing the influence from mid-latitude conditions. (updates can be found in the category polar vortex and jet stream. 26/04/2016)

What I am trying to highlight in my theory are the possible mechanisms which would explain: changes in albedo which support the concept of “Arctic Amplification”, early snowfalls in central Asia, Arctic ice cover meltdown and oceanic increases in salinity and ultimately, the origin of atmospheric blocking patterns and a slow down or “pause” in T raise, unified in single principle: Increasing conc. of CO2 and water vapour induce a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation.

I am looking at the implications of having the Arctic circulation not “Amplifying” but “Absorbing” constant increases in atm CO2 and Water vapour. In my approach, instead of looking at what happens in the Arctic as the origin of a chain reaction, I look at what happens in the Arctic just as a side effect (with its own implications) of a more wide process resultant from a reduction between the differential  gradients of energy driving the atmospheric global circulation, being water vapour the carrier of the energy being dispersed all over the atmosphere.

Atmospheric patterns observed.

The moisture gained in the Equator is being introduced in atmospheric circulation at higher latitudes and altitudes fuelling cyclonic events with more strength and depth than we were used to see.

The depth of the systems (like the one on the 21st Oct/14 in the Atlantic) goes from surface level up to 250hPa, interacting with the Jet stream and the Polar vortex leading to a split in the Jet stream towards the Mediterranean sea. This situation has created a disruption in atmospheric circulation triggering early snow fall over locations such as Turkey, Iran and Central Asia (accuweather.com).

Wind Speed at North Atlantic Sea 21 Oct, 4 Nov and 15 Dec 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

 Similarly cyclonic events are getting stronger and stationary in location also in the northern Pacific reproducing so-called “Blocking patterns” (Following figures).

1000hPa Wind TPW DiegoFdezSevilla

Similarities in Total Precipitable Water and weather patterns at the North Pacific 13 Feb – 15 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

700hPa Wind TPW DiegoFdezSevilla

Similarities in Total Precipitable Water and weather patterns at the North Pacific 13 Feb – 15 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

UPDATE. Image of North Pacific patterns for wind and TPW at 700 hPa on the 6th Nov and 22nd Dec 2014. Compare with the above. Similarly as in the Winter 13/14, the perturbed flow over the North Pacific is also very clear with two deep  anticyclonic systems, which were and are a persistent feature at this part of the year. (See also, What type of Polar vortex configuration can we expect for this winter? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla))

250hPa Wind TPW DiegoFdezSevilla

Similarities in Total Precipitable Water and weather patterns at the North Pacific 13 Feb – 15 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

70hPa Wind TPW DiegoFdezSevilla

Similarities in Total Precipitable Water and weather patterns at the North Pacific 13 Feb – 15 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

10 hPa Wind TPW DiegoFdezSevilla

Similarities in Total Precipitable Water and weather patterns at the North Pacific 13 Feb – 15 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

Thus, the North hemisphere might start to see more often a seasonal weakening in the stability of the polar vortex and jet stream, and all the climatic events associated.

What has induced an increase in atmospheric water vapour content?

So far, and among others, I have being exploring the implications of understanding the role of water vapour in a global system under a constant environmental transformation.

Throughout several posts in this blog, I have explored the connections between Solar activity, Biological productivity, Polar vortex, Environmental Resilience, Inland Water Bodies and Water Cycle, Energy Balance and the Influence of Continentality on Extreme Climatic Events. Based on my criteria (always open for corrections) I will share my thoughts on what I believe is what it has induced an increase in atmospheric water vapour content and its implications in atmospheric circulation.

Total Precipitable Water at the North Hemisphere 21 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

Total Precipitable Water at the North Atlantic Sea 21 Oct 2014. Composition by Diego Fdez-Sevilla. Images from Nullchool.net

Solar activity could increase the temperature of the masses getting radiated (water or land). It could increase evaporation from oceans but water vapor needs more factors to be sustained in atmospheric circulation for longer periods of time and reach further in latitudes. Thermodynamic laws dictate the amount of water which can be contained in the atmosphere. More evaporation in a clean sky (low aerosol and green house gasses content) could induce more rain in tropospheric circulation but it wouldn´t stand for long in the atmosphere as the energy within it would dissipate. However, if the amount of greenhouse gasses increases, the energy from the cyclonic event would not feel so greatly the differential gradient in energy with the surrounding so it would not dissipate its energy so easily.

Cyclones diagram

Cyclones diagram at the North Hemisphere

(Update) Based on all my previous research published in this blog and, the arguments pointed out in this assessment, I propose for open evaluation by the scientific community the theory of “Facing a reduced differential energy gradient in atmospheric circulation” and the consequent implications over Weather Patterns, Atmospheric Circulation and Atmospheric Oscillations.

UPDATED 6/Nov/2014

During December and January 2013/14 the pattern of winds over the North East Pacific and North America was very disturbed. The North Pacific jet was deflected a long way north, with a secondary branch extending southwards into the tropical Pacific accentuating the separation of the Pacific and Atlantic jet streams. The effects of this over North America and into the North Atlantic were profound. The deflection of the jet to the north led to colder air being carried south over Canada and the northern US  to enter the North Atlantic jet and establish a stronger than normal temperature gradient at the entrance of the North Atlantic Jet. This acted to strengthen the jet and provide the conditions for active cyclogenesis, which in turn led to a sequence of strong storms across the UK throughout December and January.

Based on my theory, Greenhouse gases store energy which leads to an increase in  global temperature. This increase in T, altogether with synergistic effects of aerosols, allows more water vapor to be contained in the atmosphere, which consequently adds more energy into the atmosphere in form of latent heat and kinetic energy. Therefore, this increase in atmospheric energy being carried and distributed all over the hemisphere would infuse power into atmospheric patterns at the same time that it would also reduce the differential energetic gradient between cyclonic events and their surroundings in order to dissipate the energy carried within. Consequently, the energy of those cyclonic events (Low and High pressures) would persist for longer throughout time, altitude and location. Such scenario would decrease the strength of barriers build upon steep differential gradients like the Polar Jet Stream. Furthermore, it would increase the frequency in which masses of warm air from low latitudes would get introduced in polar regions as well as masses of polar air would move across the Jet Stream across latitudes moving further South. Following the 2nd Thermodynamics law on entropy, having decreased the differential in gradient of energy between cyclonic events and its surroundings would increase the life span of those events. That would induce an increase in the accumulation of energy in form of latent heat, water vapour and wind strength. Such build-up in power, without dissipating the energy contained within, would give cyclonic events enough strength to interfere with atmospheric barriers like the Polar Jet Stream breaking it, and also, would allow them to adopt locations that originate blocking patterns as those we can see as High Pressure Systems situated in the North Pacific Ocean and also in the Atlantic Ocean.

North Atlantic Vertical Atmospheric Circulation

North Atlantic vertical atmospheric circulation in the days 4 Nov and 6 Nov 2014. Composition by DiegoFdezSevilla. Images from Nullschool.

North Pacific vertical circulation DiegoFdezSevilla

North Pacific vertical atmospheric circulation in the days 4 Nov and 6 Nov 2014. Composition by DiegoFdezSevilla. Images from Nullschool.

Broken Jet Stream, Wind Speed and Pattern at NH Atlantic 6 Nov DiegoFdezSevilla

Broken Jet Stream, Wind Speed and Pattern at NH Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 6 Nov/14 DiegoFdezSevilla

This proposed scenario suggests that the amount of energy distributed across the atmosphere has reduced the differential energy gradient between atmospheric events and the surroundings.

Based on observation, one indication pointing to the existent differential energy gradient in the North Hemisphere could be expressed by the kinetic energy carried by Wind Speed (red and green colours). The kinetic energy carried by the Jet Stream is similar to several cyclonic events and secondary streams getting deviated from the Jet stream. As it can be seen in the image taken the 6th of Nov at 250 hPa (below), the Jet Stream has not enough power to keep its position, being pushed and deflected by several cyclonic events in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. But furthermore, it also loses its configuration as a single stream, getting secondary currents moving to the North and also to the South. In fact, over the Atlantic Ocean, part of the current from the Jet Stream goes so far into the South enough to cross over the Equator.

North Hemisphere Jet Stream conditions DiegoFdezSevilla 6Nov14

North Hemisphere Jet Stream conditions and Kinetic energy distribution applying wind speed as indicator (Green  and Red) DiegoFdezSevilla 6Nov14

Indications supporting the theory

Based on my previous research, the forces interacting with the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and with the weather circulation are linked with the conditions of the atmosphere (greenhouse gasses and aerosols) but also with transformations inland over water bodies, water circulation, land use and land cover. (for more info see related posts)

In July 2014, NOAA published their report for 2013 “State of the Climate: Humidity”:

  • Overall, there was more water vapor than average in the near-surface atmosphere in 2013. The air over the southern and central United States, western Europe, central and east Asia, central South America, southern Africa, and central eastern Australia were drier than the 1981-2010 average. But overall, most regions experienced moister-than-average atmospheric conditions including the midlatitude northern Pacific and northern Atlantic, Southeast Asia, and most of tropical Africa. While the specific humidity—the amount of water vapor–was well above average over land and ocean, the relative humidity—how close the air is to being completely saturated with water vapor—was far below average in 2013, although slightly higher than in 2012. In 2013, below-average saturation dominated midlatitude land masses, whereas the higher latitudes and tropics, especially India, had higher relative humidity than the long-term average. Differences were much greater over land than over the oceans.

    (top) Annual specific humidity over land (orange) and ocean (green) compared to the 1979-2003 average. (bottom) Relative humidity over land areas compared to the 1979-2003 average from two different data sets. While the exact values form the the different sources vary from year to year, most show similar trends over time. Graph by NOAA Climate.gov, adapted from Figure 2.12 in State of the Climate in 2013.

    Overall, water vapor in the surface atmosphere has increased over land and ocean relative to the 1970s (specific humidity is rising), while the atmosphere over land is becoming less saturated (relative humidity is dropping). At first glance, that seems impossible. How can the atmosphere be getting less saturated if there is more water vapor in the air?

    The drivers of this are not yet well understood but differences in rate of warming between land and ocean, and land surface water availability may be factors. Saturation—the point at which water vapor condenses back into water or ice, often forming clouds—depends on the air temperature, and air temperature around the world is also rising. Over many land areas, it’s getting warmer faster than it is getting wetter, which means the air is less saturated (relative humidity goes down), even as specific humidity goes up. (To see more follow “NOAA 2013 State of the Climate: Humidity

  • In a scenario where differential gradients of energy are reduced due to increasing greenhouse gas levels we would expect that the temperature difference between the equator and the poles would drop as the poles warm faster due to the broader distribution of the extra energy stored by the increase in greenhouse gasses and water vapour. And since about the mid 20th Century, the temperature difference between the equator and the poles has indeed dropped.

(Left chart shows North Pole to Equator temperature difference since 1948. Right chart shows South Pole to Equator temperature difference from 1948 to 2011. Note the approximate 3 C temperature swing indicating a faster warming at the poles in both graphs. Data is from the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis model.)

In this theory, the scenario presented is characterized by seeing the differential gradients of energy between latitudes and throughout altitude being reduced as consequence of the broader distribution of the extra energy stored by the increase in greenhouse gasses and water vapour.

Consequently, the energy of those cyclonic events (Low and High pressures) would persist for longer throughout time, altitude and location. Such scenario would decrease the strength of barriers build upon steep differential gradients like the Polar Jet Stream. Therefore, it would increase the frequency in which masses of warm air from low latitudes would get introduced in polar regions as well as masses of polar air would move across the Jet Stream across latitudes moving further South.

250 hPa Temperature Pole - Equator 14 Nov 2014 DiegoFdezSevilla

250 hPa Pockets of air with just 10C degrees Temperature difference with the Equator located in the Pole region 14 Nov 2014 Image composition by DiegoFdezSevilla. Captured from Nullschool.

Such scenario in which GHGs gasses would allow cyclonic events to gain strength enough to interfere with the Jet Stream, and, in such a way as to increase concentration in water vapour inducing flash flooding and latent heat giving strength to wind motion as part of adiabatic processes, seems to be supported by the computer model by NASA looking at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe.

(Publicado el 17/11/2014) An ultra-high-resolution NASA computer model has given scientists a stunning new look at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe.

Plumes of carbon dioxide in the simulation swirl and shift as winds disperse the greenhouse gas away from its sources. The simulation also illustrates differences in carbon dioxide levels in the northern and southern hemispheres and distinct swings in global carbon dioxide concentrations as the growth cycle of plants and trees changes with the seasons.

The carbon dioxide visualization was produced by a computer model called GEOS-5, created by scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office.

The visualization is a product of a simulation called a “Nature Run.” The Nature Run ingests real data on atmospheric conditions and the emission of greenhouse gases and both natural and man-made particulates. The model is then left to run on its own and simulate the natural behavior of the Earth’s atmosphere. This Nature Run simulates January 2006 through December 2006.

Communication and articles in agreement with the validity of this theory:

(Nov 2014) “Flight Service Specialist (Aviation Safety) at Nav Canada”

Hi, Diego. Your observations are accurate. I have been watching this shift in retained atmospheric moisture over the past 17 years that I have been working in Aviation Meteorology. The effects have been quite varied here in Canada, due to synoptic variations and our continental mass. I worked in the Western Arctic for 7 years, and for the past 10 years, I’ve been working in Winnipeg, Manitoba, which is located at approximately the geographical centre of North America. During the summer months, Convective activity has definitely increased in both frequency and intensity in the vicinity of Winnipeg. We are seeing precipitation patterns in this region now, that were historically located 500km south of here.”

After this publication in 2014 several other publications in this blog have kept a follow-up over developments which would support the validity of the theory purposed. Therefore, in order to verify the validity of my assessments, I have carrying on looking at atmospheric dynamics, but also, peer review publications which are related. I leave you here links to those more relevant in chronological order (there are comments bellow some of them. Please check them out):

I believe that the hypothesis that I present here can help to understand present and possible future scenarios in atmospheric circulation. However, this is an assessment based on observation which needs to be validated throughout open discussion and data gathering.

I would like to not only be the one proposing this theory but also be involved in this line of research. Since I am in a transition period looking for a position in research, I publicly ask for institutional and economic support to find the means to contribute evaluating the accuracy of this theory.

_________________________________

June 2016. The aim of publishing my work openly is to allow for it to be exposed for an open review. So any constructive feedback is welcome. After a period of time of at least a month from the publishing date on this blog and at LinkedIn, if no comments are found discussing the value of the piece published I then publish it at ResearchGate generating a DOI for posterior references.

In order to protect my intellectual rights, more assessment in depth and the statistical and numerical analyses that I have performed to support my arguments can be discussed at my email: d.fdezsevilla(at)gmail.com

The performance of my work as independent researcher, with no institutional and economic support, is limited by my lack of access to resources and economic stability. So far what I have published in this blog is what I have been able to offer with those limitations.

If you find that my work is worthy to be acknowledged, share your thoughts openly and publicly because by sharing public acknowledging over the value of my work is what will overcome the limitations of my cv in order to find the attention from those able to allow me access to a job position or resources to increase the functionality of my research.

PerspectiveSince October 2013 I have been studying the behaviour of the Polar Jet Stream and the weather events associated as well as the implications derived into atmospheric dynamics and environmental synergies.

Many of the atmospheric configurations and weather and climate events we see these days are very similar with the progression followed since 2013. Please take a look at posts addressing those events from previous publications in this blog or look at the categories in the top menu. Also at research-gate. Feedback is always welcomed either in this blog or at my email (d.fdezsevilla(at)gmail.com). All my work is part of my Intellectual Portfolio, registered under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,  WordPress.com license and it is being implemented at my profile in researchgate. I will fight for its recognition in case of misuse.

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About Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

Citing This Site "Title", published online "Month"+"Year", retrieved on "Month""Day", "Year" from http://www.diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com. By Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. More guidance on citing this web as a source can be found at NASA webpage: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/bibliography/citations#! Bachelor in General Biology, Masters degree "Licenciado" in Environmental Sciences (2001, Spain). PhD in Aerobiology (2007, UK). Lived, acquired training and worked in Spain, UK, Germany and Poland. I have shared the outcome from my previous work as scientific speaker in events held in those countries as well as in Switzerland and Finland. After couple of years performing research and working in institutions linked with environmental research and management, I find myself in a period of transition searching for a new position or funding to support my research. In the present competitive scenario, instead of just moving my cv and wait for my next opportunity to arrive, I have decided to invest also my energy and time in opening my own line of research showing what I am capable of. The value of the data and the original nature of the research presented in this blog has proved to be worthy of consideration by the scientific community as well as for publication in scientific journals. However, without a position as member of an institution, it becomes very challenging to be published. I hope that this handicap do not overshadow the value of my work and the intellectual rights represented by the license of attribution attached are respected and considered by the scientist involved in this line of research. Any comment and feedback aimed to be constructive is welcome. In this blog I publish pieces of research focused on addressing relevant environmental questions. Furthermore, I try to break the barrier that academic publications very often offer isolating scientific findings from the general public. In that way I address those topics which I am familiar with, thanks to my training in environmental research, making them available throughout my posts. (see "Framework and Timeline" for a complete index). At this moment, 2017, I am living in Spain with no affiliation attachments. Free to relocate geographically worldwide. If you feel that I could be a contribution to your institution, team and projects don´t hesitate in contact me at d.fdezsevilla (at) gmail.com or consult my profile at LinkedIn, ResearchGate and Academia.edu. Also, I'd appreciate information about any opportunity that you might know and believe it could match with my aptitudes. The conclusions and ideas expressed in each post as part of my own creativity are part of my Intellectual Portfolio and are protected by Intellectual Property Laws. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial conditions. In citing my work from this website, be sure to include the date of access. (c)Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD, 2017. Filling in or Finding Out the gaps around. Publication accessed 20YY-MM-DD at http://www.diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/
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116 Responses to (Updated 22/Dec/14) New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)

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  16. This theory was shared at the AGU group at linkedin in 2014. It originated more than 20 messages. However, the records shown by LinkedIN are less than the original content which I published through the discussion (it shows only 8 messages from more than 20). In order to defend my intellectual rights over the points of view and information shared against misappropriation and misconduct by third parties, and in the absence of LinkedIN records available to expose misconduct, here I leave the transcript of the discussion generated by the publication of this theory at the AGU group, at Linkedin, from 2014 until 3 February 2017.
    https://www.linkedin.com/groups/2196290/2196290-5931346213575102464?trk=hp-feed-group-discussion

    ^^Geomorphology Research at Orion Research Associates
    So are you saying this is a current trend or future, or both? Does it seem that moisture patterns are shifting? I am predicting a harsh winter for the Mid-Atlantic region of the US where I reside. All nature indicators are saying this, plus we are over 10 inches above normal for rainfall. I wish we could share with rain strapped California.

    Kind regards,

    Robbie

    ** Ulric. Solar based weather and climate forecasts.
    WV has decreased at 300mb:

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2014/10/27 12:06:28 UTC

    Dear Ulric, I would appreciate if you could extend a little bit about what do you make of those charts and what would you like to point out about them in relation with my assessment?

    ++ Flight Service Specialist (Aviation Safety) at Nav Canada
    Hi, Diego. Your observations are accurate. I have been watching this shift in retained atmospheric moisture over the past 17 years that I have been working in Aviation Meteorology. The effects have been quite varied here in Canada, due to synoptic variations and our continental mass. I worked in the Western Arctic for 7 years, and for the past 10 years, I’ve been working in Winnipeg, Manitoba, which is located at approximately the geographical centre of North America. During the summer months, Convective activity has definitely increased in both frequency and intensity in the vicinity of Winnipeg. We are seeing precipitation patterns in this region now, that were historically located 500km south of here.
    I suggest that you take a closer look at the effect of retained aerosols and greenhouse gases on the circulation of Hadley Cells. I firmly believe that this is a prime source of the desertification we see taking place in the American South-West. In turn, I believe that precipitation patterns have shifted much further north, along with a higher atmospheric energy regime. After you’ve had a look at the data, I would like to know your thoughts on this topic.

    Best Regards, PH

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2014/10/29 06:46:57 UTC

    Dear Peter,
    Thanks very much for your input. Every time I share or publish in the blog my thoughts, is a nerve racking experience. Either because it can be very easy to shoot myself in the foot by applying approaches and conclusions which are against data that I am not aware of, and being unemployed I can not even get the resources to get access to it for contrast (review), and also, because in case of adding publicly something new in the state of knowledge, I have not control about the repercussion or credit anybody else would give to my contribution. In both cases I am exposed to find myself in a near future looking at vortexes I will serve in coffee mugs.
    I will try to look into what you suggest even though I am limited in resources to find data since I have ordinary internet access to open media and time has become also a random resource. I would say this in a private message but the quality of my answer to your comment in this discussion is linked to my professional situation and everybody willing to follow the debate must be aware also. I would love to further this and more lines of research but at this moment I don´t have the resources neither the position or the institutional and economic support to do it.

    In another hand, and addressing your point about my thoughts on the effect of retained aerosols and greenhouse gases on the circulation, I would like to point to you (and anybody interested) to two post and comments in my blog and a general search of the word “aerosol” in the search bar at the blog’s page.
    Climate variability and energy balance. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on November 27, 2013. http://wp.me/p403AM-3y
    Met Office. The Recent Storms and Floods in the UK (Feb 2014) (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on February 17, 2014. http://wp.me/p403AM-7i

    Among other things you will find the following thought in the subject of aerosols and weather:
    What about studies looking at alterations in the role played by water in the atmosphere (absorbing heat and adiabatic behaviour inducing weather events) due to interaction with pollutants? I would like to know about studies looking at not only the increase of water vapour due to increases in temperature but also about how the interaction of pollutants with water could affect its properties throughout evaporation, condensation processes as well as in adiabatic processes.
    I would like to explore the validity of an idea that is coming around my mind lately about the combined effect of:
    Furthermore, the effect of increasing amounts of aerosols leading to an increased capacity of the atmosphere to retain water. “Water drops in polluted cases are up to 50 percent smaller than in clean skies. The smaller size impedes the formation of rain clouds and the falling of rain (http://phys.org/news169474977.html#jCp)”
    and, in addition, greenhouse gases retaining heat allow the atmosphere to expand retaining more water vapour.
    Could the combine effect be part of the strong effect described as “The ‘buckling’ of the jet stream over the Pacific and North America became much more pronounced during January 2014, as the precipitation anomaly over Indonesia and the West Pacific strengthened. A notable feature of this anomalous area of tropical precipitation is its northwards extent into the winter hemisphere where it is able to interact with the North Pacific jet and generate Rossby waves that propagate along the jet and act to reinforce the huge meander of the jet stream off the west coast of North America.”?

    Check also the post “Hot topics and thoughts identified in environmental science from public access media. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Posted on Nov 28, 2013.
    You will find information about the the HALO demo mission ACRIDICON was proposed to study interactions between trace gases, aerosol particles, the cloud and precipitation formation, and atmospheric radiation in extra-tropical convective clouds.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2014/10/29 07:04:31 UTC

    Following the idea that I introduced earlier about exploring the combined effect of increasing amounts of aerosols and the capacity of the atmosphere in retaining heat leading to an increased capacity of the atmosphere to retain water, I want to explain how my previous work has made me get to connect dots.

    Throughout my PhD I studied and discussed the influence of atmospheric water vapour in the aerodynamic behaviour of one particle being part of the aerosol, pollen grains. In my research I already pointed out the need for further research about the implications of the biological atmospheric particle load by being involved in climate events through the microphysics of cloud formation due to the nuclei drop activity of such particles. https://www.academia.edu/1262984/Aerodynamics_of_pollen_grains_involved_in_sampling_efficiency._Abstract_Index_Conclusions._Thesis_by_Diego_Fernandez-Sevilla
    Here also I leave a related article:
    Contribution of pollen to atmospheric ice nuclei concentrations
    J. D. Hader, T. P. Wright, and M. D. Petters
    http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/13/31673/2013/acpd-13-31673-2013.html

    Furthermore, I have studied the amount of pollen grains contained in a gram of pollen released outdoors from two related species of the same genus of Birch (unpublished yet). It has been estimated that a birch tree releases more than 5.5 billion grains over a single year, alder 7.2 billion, and an oak less at 0.6 billion grains. Spruce also produced about 5.5 billion grains in a year. Cereal rye grass contained 4.25 million pollen grains per inflorescence.

    Additionally, I also performed research about the impact that environmental heat increase and retention has in the atmospheric biological load due to the urban heat island effect. The results point out that the biological cycles of the biota are altered increasing the duration of their “pollen release” period. The scenario created by the urban heat island effect has been already applied to extrapolate global climatic alterations in the biota suggesting an increase in plant performance (metabolism) inducing more bioaerosol released into the atmosphere.
    https://www.academia.edu/459629/Assessment_between_pollen_seasons_in_areas_with_different_urbanization_level_related_to_local_vegetation_sources_and_differences_in_allergen_exposure

    Putting together my own experience in researching bioaerosols, my understanding of environmental processes and the findings by others, I find enough dots connected to be very alert about the synergistic effects that the biological and non biological aerosols might play as part of the whole circulation system all together with alterations in Water cycles, Land use and Land cover involved in albedo, adiabatic processes and inland water vapor patterns (see 2013 State of the Climate: Humidity.
    http://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/2013-state-climate-humidity)

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2014/11/14 11:57:12 UTC

    I have updated this post.
    I am an outsider from professional meteorology so I assume my limitations but I would like your thoughts about considering as a theory, on today’s climate, the possibility of having an increase in energy stored and diffused over the whole atmosphere due to GHGs, Water vapor and aerosols. Following such idea I have my considerations about the repercussions if the energy carried in climatic events do not get dissipated in altitude and latitude easily. What I would call in my humble use of terms, a “reduced differential in energy gradient”. Having a reduced differential in energy gradient in the atmosphere and atmospheric circulation would weaken the Jet stream stability. Any thoughts?

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2014/11/21 12:50:04 UTC

    “I have upgraded this post and I have publish a new one in which I extend part of its content which can be accessed here: http://wp.me/p403AM-mt

    I don´t start a new discussion threat because both are closely related and it would not create a new topic.

    Feedback is appreciatted in order to discuss the accuracy of my thoughts and reach as many different perspectives and opinions as I can.”

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2014/11/21 03:06:55 UTC

    Just for anybody whom might be interested the new post I mentioned in previous comment addresses why there is no need for the Polar Vortex to break in order to have a wobbling Jet Stream and polar weather?

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/02/11 06:55:14 UTC

    Dear Robbie,
    It has taken me two months but I still rmember your question:
    So are you saying this is a current trend or future, or both? Does it seem that moisture patterns are shifting?

    I believe that my assessment is for the short term.
    See my follow up on this if you like it

    Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla.
    Posted on February 10, 2015
    http://wp.me/p403AM-to

    ** Ulric Lyons Solar based weather and climate forecasts.
    “The ‘buckling’ of the jet stream over the Pacific and North America became much more pronounced during January 2014..”

    I forecast that to happen due to weak solar conditions causing a negative Arctic Oscillation from around 7 Jan 2014. I also forecast Arctic outbreaks from around 10/11 Nov 2014 for ~2 weeks, and from Dec 26 for ~3 weeks, and again in the first week of Feb 2015. The next major one is from around 18/20 March 2015.
    Increased GHG forcing as with increased solar forcing increases positive Arctic Oscillation conditions, so is the wrong sign to be associated with the Arctic outbreak.

    This particular jet stream pattern is dictated by the very warm sea surface in the N.E. Pacific, which has far more influence in winter months as the general circulation patterns move south for the season.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/02/12 12:45:49 UTC

    Ulric, you are making reference to a phrase from a comment from 3 months ago as a random phrase picked just to plug in your comment about your forecast. You haven´t even read the post I pointing to. And that is fine with me as long as you don´t change the line of discussion I am trying to build.

    I appreciate your input if it adds something that relates with the work that I put into keeping updated and moving forward with my thoughts, and better if it comes in a constructive manner and with your interpretation on the info added. Without your interpretation of things I become just the source of picking points for your comments.

    The info that you pointed out with your graphs at the beginning of this discussion are confusing and misleading for anybody no familiar with the differences sources of info. If you want me to consider them first clarify what do you make of them being aware about the report NOAA on the 2013 State of the Climate: Humidity.
    http://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/2013-state-climate-humidity

    Believe it or not, I am making an effort with limited resources to produce and argument a piece of work trying to achieve, at least, that it can be considered worthy to be explored as a line of thinking.

    If you work as forecaster on climate and weather I don´t know why you haven´t considered in your comment the debate on “Arctic amplification” affecting AO/NAO oscillations, and the discussion being part of the actual state of knowledge raising doubts about your assessment: “Increased GHG forcing increases positive Arctic Oscillation conditions”.

    Cohen et all suggest that the intensification of the Siberian high, along with the thermal impacts of enhanced snow cover and topographic forcing, corresponds to a positive wave activity flux anomaly in the late fall and early winter, leading to stratospheric warming and to the January tropospheric negative winter AO response.
    http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ost/climate/STIP/FY11CTBSeminars/jcohen_062211.pdf

    More:
    Colin Summerhayes, Emeritus Associate of the Scott Polar Research Institute in the UK.
    Summerhayes explains that the warming of the atmosphere associated with the absence of sea ice weakens the high level winds of the polar vortex. That in turn leads to meandering of the jet stream, with the meanders becoming stuck which is what meteorologists call ‘blocking’. This pull cold air south out of the Arctic, and because the system is stuck in position, the cold air supply can last quite a while.

    Coumou and his colleagues argue there are good physical reasons to think there is a causal link, because the jet streams are driven by the difference in temperature between the poles and the equator. As the Arctic is warming more quickly than lower latitudes, that temperature difference is declining, providing less energy for the jet stream and its meanders, which are called Rossby waves.

    For more on this:
    Probability in the atmospheric circulation dictating the Weather (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Posted on January 15, 2015.
    http://wp.me/p403AM-rm

    About your forecast
    I recognise your work and I appreciate that you want of it to be noticed as much as I am about my work and thoughts. Why don´t you create a discussion specific about it?

    ** Ulric Lyons Solar based weather and climate forecasts.
    Arctic Amplification is bunkum, the complete reverse happens in reality.

    Increased GHG forcing increases positive Arctic Oscillation conditions:
    http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ch10s10-3-5-6.html

    Cohen and Summerhayes are just grasping for internal solutions for something that is solar forced, and that I have been regularly forecasting at long range.

    My first comment is self explanatory, i.e. water vapour has decreased at 300mb.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/02/12 07:53:30 UTC

    So you want to discuss with the people from NOAA whom made the report on the State of the Climate for Humidity in the the atmosphere that you have seen that at 300mb water vapour has decreased? So they should explain to you why they wrote:

    Overall, there was more water vapor than average in the near-surface atmosphere in 2013. The air over the southern and central United States, western Europe, central and east Asia, central South America, southern Africa, and central eastern Australia were drier than the 1981-2010 average. But overall, most regions experienced moister-than-average atmospheric conditions including the midlatitude northern Pacific and northern Atlantic, Southeast Asia, and most of tropical Africa.

    While the specific humidity—the amount of water vapor–was well above average over land and ocean, the relative humidity—how close the air is to being completely saturated with water vapor—was far below average in 2013, although slightly higher than in 2012. In 2013, below-average saturation dominated midlatitude land masses, whereas the higher latitudes and tropics, especially India, had higher relative humidity than the long-term average. Differences were much greater over land than over the oceans.

    Please be my guess and share what they tell you.

    About Cohen and Summerhayes it would be nice to see how you discuss also their assessments with the arguments which support your pints of view.
    But you don´t even care to spend some time reading about those post that I care to create before you try to sell yourself with your comments about that you are right and the others are wrong.

    You are defending that you are right. I would like that you would open your own discussion on how much Solar forecast can be applied as an accurate system to study weather and climate. And I would follow it and learn.

    Here I am making an effort to study, explore and create arguments to support my own assessment. I take the time to develop ideas, search for connections, synergies and data. I am openly exposing my own perception of things for analytical judgement and criticism.
    And here you come cherry picking self assuring information addressed to defend again that you are right. But right about what? Write your own topic for discussion on your perception of things and post it. Allow the whole community to know how and why you think what you think and how it matches with physics and data.

    I am a person whom is committed to what I believe is right and willing to take risks in doing it so. But also I am a critical mind as much about others as about my own thoughts, so I want to explore the validity of my ideas through discussion being aware of that I might have to amend those if confronted with arguments well developed and knowledgeably supported.

    I welcome anybody to join me in discussing which arguments that I am using are wrong, why and which should apply instead. That is why I have open this discussion. And I have spent hours looking at data in many forms and written several posts trying to address many different perspectives which share synergies and follow settled physical laws linking actual weather development.

    Please Ulric, are you trying to help me or help yourself? You haven´t even read the last post I have pointed out in my last message but you want me to take seriously your comments … ? If you write comments without gathering relevant information you show a biased mind and gives me no confidence about your assessments, sorry to say.

    Create your own material, expose it to the community and I will meet you there.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/02/12 07:55:32 UTC

    If anybody interested in the posts related with this discussion here I leave you those more relevant in chronological order (there are comments bellow some of them. Please check them out):

    New theory proposal to assess possible changes in Atmospheric Circulation (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on October 21, 2014. http://wp.me/p403AM-k3

    Why there is no need for the Polar Vortex to break in order to have a wobbling Jet Stream and polar weather? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on November 14, 2014. http://wp.me/p403AM-mt

    Gathering data to make visible the invisible (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on December 22, 2014. http://wp.me/p403AM-pN

    State of the Polar Vortex. Broken? From 29 Nov 2014 to 5th Jan 2015 (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla). Posted on November 29, 2014. http://wp.me/p403AM-o7

    Probability in the atmospheric circulation dictating the Weather (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on January 15, 2015. http://wp.me/p403AM-rm

    Meteorological Outlook Feb 2015 (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) Posted on February 7, 2015. http://wp.me/p403AM-sU

    Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” by Diego Fdez-Sevilla.
    Posted on February 10, 2015. http://wp.me/p403AM-to

    ** Ulric Lyons Solar based weather and climate forecasts.
    Excuse me but I have read your posts, and I have read recent Cohen papers, else I would not be making pertinent comment on them. Falsely accusing me of cherry picking, while talking around my valid criticisms just shows me that you defend that which is wrong. Near surface water vapour is *not* 300mb.

    Just look at your last sentence…
    “If you write comments without gathering relevant information you show a biased mind and gives me no confidence about your assessments, sorry to say.”

    Diego, that’s exactly what you did with the water vapour.

    I am not here to sell anything, it would appear that you are, which is why I joined the conversation to discuss the validity of the science.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/02/13 12:22:56 UTC

    From the same IPCC report that you mentioned earlier but you haven´t read.

    http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ch3s3-4-2-2.html

    * Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapour

    To summarise, the available data do not indicate a detectable trend in upper-tropospheric relative humidity. However, there is now evidence for global increases in upper-tropospheric specific humidity over the past two decades, which is consistent with the observed increases in tropospheric temperatures and the absence of any change in relative humidity.

    ** Ulric Lyons Solar based weather and climate forecasts.
    I take it that you had not read the IPPC page that I linked to, else you would have not said..

    “..and the discussion being part of the actual state of knowledge raising doubts about your assessment: “Increased GHG forcing increases positive Arctic Oscillation conditions”.”

    I have already posted NOAA data showing measured humidity trends at 300 mb declining.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/02/20 05:03:01 UTC

    It seems that allowing time to enhance the participation for other members of the group in this discussion is not giving much feedback. Silence can be due to members being just observers sharing interest but waiting to have something to say or, just the opposite, with no interest at all. And better not to say anything than being unpleasant… Anyhow, finding silence coming from such a large and highly qualified group is at least interesting.

    About Ulric, it would be a mistake on my behalf to undervalue and underestimate the input shared by anybody. And yet, I find that the most meaningful contribution comes from the interpretation that a trained person adds when making a point on top of just pointing the existence of any kind of value or data.
    In another hand, any blogger has tools to identify the amount and origin of traffic aimed to each post in their blog so it is easy to know if somebody has seen a post before commenting about it.

    The theory that I have developed follows the work published previously by scientists Judah Cohen, Masato Mori, Colin Summerhayes, Coumou and Ted Shepherd, whom all together supported the theory of that early snowfall over Asia increases albedo leading to heat retention in the atmosphere provoking Arctic ice to melt and create heat absorption leading to jet stream weakening due to Arctic Amplification in atmospheric heat absorption. I believe that all of that is a consequence and not the trigger. That is a symptom and not the cause.

    This theory takes Water as a carrier of energy, so the main focus to understand it has to be placed in the way how thermodynamics drives the mechanisms transferring and transforming energy in different forms, understanding also the limitations and synergies expressed by the variables under observation. When considering adiabatic processes in altitude and in geographical location implies to carefully identify the characteristics of independence for the parameters you chose. Relative Humidity, Specific Humidity, mixing ratio or Atmospheric Precipitable Water are different forms to define thermodynamic mechanism addressing different situations, so it is much desired to clarify the interpretations of their variations in order to join efforts.

    — Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2015/03/11 12:24:07 UTC

    For anybody interested I want you to know that I have upgraded my post Revisiting the theory of “Facing a decrease in the differential gradients of energy in atmospheric circulation” with recorded “Anomalies” and recent “Observed” features on atmospheric behaviour.
    http://wp.me/p403AM-to

    I hope that you find it useful. Any feed back is more than welcome.

    –Diego Fernandez Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2016/05/21 06:33:55 UTC

    Update on the presented line of research.
    A new paper being published 2 years after my first assessment seems to corroborate the conclusions presented in my line of research. This confirmation opens wide the possibility of seen in the near future more papers supporting also the other assessments and their implications in climatic developments, that I have presented following such line of research.
    The intention of publishing my work in an open platform is aimed to reach a multidisciplinary audience in order to make a public review enhancing interaction between disciplines, so feel free to add your comments.

    Hadley cells. Research Update May 2016 (by Diego Fdez-sevilla) May 6, 2016
    https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/2016/05/06/research-update-may-2016-by-diego-fdez-sevilla/
    My approach, data, observations and analyses indicate that the weakening of the North Polar Jet Stream is not due to processes of early snow precipitation as it proposes the theory of Artic Amplification.
    8mo (8 months ago)

    — Diego Fernandez Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 2016/06/15 11:43:32 UTC

    In order to keep updating the stream of new papers being published in relation with the line of research followed in this thread:

    The Butterfly Effect on Arctic Circulation. (By Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on June 10, 2016
    https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/the-butterfly-effect-on-arctic-circulation-by-diego-fdez-sevilla/

    New Peer-reviewed research begin to appear in scientific journals in 2016 which show to corroborate previous assessments:

    The 5th May 2016, a study published over the Hadley circulation supports the assessments pointing out a deformation in the patterns followed in atmospheric circulation extending mid-latitude influence into Polar Latitudes: Research Update May 2016 (by Diego Fdez-sevilla).

    On June 9th 2016, Nature has published an article by Tedesco and colleagues which seems to corroborate the assessment considering Energy flows, distribution and dispersion in the generation of new atmospheric patterns defining weather patterns.
    7months ago

    ** Ulric Lyons 15 June 2016
    See how this AO/NAO forecast does for the rest of the year…
    https://docs.google.com/document/d/1zn9MUBGHRYJH1x7vt4E9fuYbHLROrMCpePuJcUQE1VI/pub
    7mo

    — Diego Fernandez Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 15 June 2016

    Thanks Ulric, I will look at it.
    Here I leave my forecast for the next decade on ENSO-NAO-AO

    – Pacific atmospheric dynamics with and without a positive ENSO (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on March 22, 2016
    https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/2016/03/22/pacific-atmospheric-dynamics-with-and-without-a-positive-enso-by-diego-fdez-sevilla/

    – A Climate “Between Waters” (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla).
    Posted on September 8, 2015
    https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/2015/09/08/a-climate-between-waters-by-diego-fdez-sevilla/

    – Discussing Climatic Teleconnections. Follow Up On My Previous Research (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on October 21, 2015
    https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/2015/10/21/discussing-climatic-teleconnections-follow-up-on-my-previous-research-by-diego-fdez-sevilla/

    – The scope of Environmental Science and scientific thought. From Thought-driven to Data-driven, from Critical Thinking to Data Management. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)
    Posted on June 26, 2015
    https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/2015/06/26/the-scope-of-environmental-science-and-scientific-thought-from-thought-driven-to-data-driven-from-critical-thinking-to-data-management-by-diego-fdez-sevilla/
    7months ago

    — Diego Fernandez Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 3 Feb 2017

    Beyond the extreme’: Scientists marvel at ‘increasingly non-natural’ Arctic warmth.
    “The Arctic is so warm and has been this warm for so long that scientists are struggling to explain it and are in disbelief.”

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2017/02/01/beyond-the-extreme-scientists-marvel-at-increasingly-non-natural-arctic-warmth/?postshare=7291486039534201&tid=ss_in&utm_term=.7fbd7f7d0806

    Why has ENSO been more difficult to predict since 2000?
    https://phys.org/news/2017-02-el-nino-southern-oscillati

    El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is one of the most striking interannual variability in the tropical Pacific, has been extensively studied for several decades. Understanding the changes in its characteristics is still an important issue for worldwide environmental and socioeconomic interests. Clear decadal variations exist in the ENSO’s predictability, with the most recent decade having the lowest ENSO predictability in the past six decades.
    14h

    ** Ulric Lyons 3 Feb 2017
    This explains Arctic warming since the mid 1990’s, and why the AMO cooled marginally around the last sunspot maximum.
    https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/association-between-sunspot-cycles-amo-ulric-lyons?trk=pulse_spock-articles.
    12h

    — Diego Fernandez Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 3 Feb 2017

    I have explained my posture to Ulric’s approach in 2014 in this threat, also couple of months ago http://www.linkedin.com/hp/update/6186970395367788544. and one month ago in a post from Giulio Betti http://www.linkedin.com/hp/update/6207525796626591744.
    Also you Ulric has people addressing your thoughts in places like Judith Curry’s blog Climate etc: Impact of the ~ 2400 yr solar cycle on climate and … – Climate Etc. https://judithcurry.com/2016/09/20/impact-of-the-2400-yr-solar-cycle-on-climate-and-human-societies/
    Every time Ulric has intervened in my research has always tried to steer the discussion to his own territory and his posture on solar, avoiding to discuss how much influence has the transformation being forced into all parts of the environment over pre-established energy flows, beyond the NH. Ulric, What is that you see in my research that you want to discuss? Or what is that you want from me to add into yours?
    5h

    — Diego Fernandez Sevilla, Ph.D. Biologist, Aerobiologist and Environmental Analyst (in job search mode worldwide. diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com) 3 Feb 2017

    The Sun has been and it is involved in all forms of existence. Nothing new there. But knowing that the Sun interacts with us “through” our environment, like through a prism, how long before we identify the consequences from transforming such prism?
    5h

    Like

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