Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules (polymers), affect oceans functions as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation…? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)


[Updated] Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules (polymers), affect oceans characteristics as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation, …? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)

Citation: Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules (polymers), affect oceans characteristics as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation, …?. Diego Fdez-Sevilla. PhD 2015. https://diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1469.6407
 (Updated 28/07/2014. Comments added at the bottom. Those comments come from the discussion generated in one or more groups at LinkedIn. My only intention bringing them together is to broader the spectra of profiles adding feedback to the subject.)

Laura Parker has published an article in National Geographic (July 15, 2014) about new discoveries on plastic waste in the oceans “First of Its Kind Map Reveals Extent of Ocean Plastic”.

The article describes the situation about plastic debris in the oceans and introduces new findings from marine ecologist Andres Cozar Cabañas and colleagues.

The work published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, did find millions of pieces of plastic debris floating in five large subtropical gyres in the world’s oceans. But plastic production has quadrupled since the 1980s, and wind, waves, and sun break all that plastic into tiny bits the size of rice grains. So there should have been a lot more plastic floating on the surface than the scientists found.

“Our observations show that large loads of plastic fragments, with sizes from microns to some millimeters, are unaccounted for in the surface loads,” says Cozar, who teaches at the University of Cadiz in Spain. “But we don’t know what this plastic is doing. The plastic is somewhere—in the ocean life, in the depths, or broken down into fine particles undetectable by nets.”

What effect those plastic fragments will have on the deep ocean—the largest and least explored ecosystem on Earth—is anyone’s guess. “Sadly,” Cozar says, “the accumulation of plastic in the deep ocean would be modifying this enigmatic ecosystem before we can really know it.”

Plastic-Soup

Plastic-Soup

This article got me into thinking about that all the properties attributed to the oceans in climatic regulation are based on the physicochemical properties of seawater. So, considering the important role played by the Oceans in climatic events,

Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and/or molecules (polymers), affect ocean’s functions as climate regulator; CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation, …?

One possible connection affected would come from altering the physical properties of oceans such as albedo and evaporation and I haven´t found information about it yet. I can only guess that the increase in the amount of particles in the column of water would increase albedo, inducing retention of more heat in the water due to refraction. That could lead to increasing temperature, reducing density (involved in upwelling processes) and may be also increasing evaporation. Have I gone too far from making sense? This is just an exercise of free thinking.

The other possible connection affected would come from the synergistic interaction between aquatic biota and the chemistry of the water. Thanks to this balance oceans have the capacity to act as CO2 sinks but, what would happen if plastic degradation reduces the aquatic biota involved in fixing CO2? And here it is what I have found about it (so far):

The North Pacific Garbage Patch, a loose collection of drifting debris that accumulates in the northern Pacific, first drew notice when it was  discovered in 1997 by oceanographer and chemist Charles Moore of the Algalita Marine Research Foundation.

Scientists had previously thought plastics broke down only at very high temperatures and over hundreds of years. The researchers behind this study, however, found that plastic breaks down at cooler temperatures than expected, and within a year of the trash hitting the water.

In 2009, a Japan-based team led by researcher Katsuhiko Saido, a chemist with the College of Pharmacy at Nihon University in Japan, collected samples in waters from the U.S., Europe, India, Japan, and elsewhere. All the water samples were found to contain derivatives of polystyrene, a common plastic used in disposable cutlery, Styrofoam, and DVD cases, among other things.

The toxic compounds the team found don’t occur naturally in the ocean, and the researchers thought plastic was the culprit. The scientists later simulated the decomposition of polystyrene in the sea and found that it degraded at temperatures of 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius). Left behind in the water were the same compounds detected in the ocean samples, such as styrene trimer, a polystyrene by-product, and bisphenol A, a chemical used in hard plastics such as reusable water bottles and the linings of aluminum cans. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to interfere with the reproductive systems of animals, while styrene monomer is a suspected carcinogen.

Along with Moore, David Barnes, a marine ecologist from the British Antarctic Survey, doesn’t think the Japanese team’s lab results can be applied uniformly across the ocean, however. Water temperatures are typically much cooler than the 86 degrees Fahrenheit in the study, he said. “We’re talking about, effectively, what happens in zones of tropical and some subtropical coasts. And there, the study may be very important,” Barnes said.  Moore added, “since those chemicals can potentially cause cancer in humans, simpler life-forms may be more susceptible than we are”.

So, could plastic polymers interfere with the biota involved in fixing CO2 in our oceans? And if so, what kind of impact could we expect from a disturbance in the correct performance of this biota?

Even though I have not found any research aiming to look at the effect of polymers over the oceanic biota responsible of fixing CO2 and the consequent impact in the environment, there are studies showing the connections between the aquatic chemistry of seas and the biota such as temperature and acidification, which give us an idea about the impact we can expect if polymers affect Carbonate fixing biota.

Temperature

Lead researcher Dr Thomas Mock points out that Phytoplankton, including micro-algae, are responsible for half of the carbon dioxide that is naturally removed from the atmosphere. As well as being vital to climate control, it also creates enough oxygen for every other breath we take, and forms the base of the food chain for fisheries so it is incredibly important for food security.

In 2013, researchers from UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences and the School of Computing Sciences investigated “The impact of temperature on marine phytoplankton resource allocation and metabolism” (microscopic plant-like organisms that rely on photosynthesis to reproduce and grow.)

Previous studies have shown that phytoplankton communities respond to global warming by changes in diversity and productivity. But this study shows that warmer temperatures directly impact the chemical cycles in plankton, which has not been shown before.

Collaborators from the University of Exeter, who are co-authors of this study, developed computer generated models to create a global ecosystem model that took into account world ocean temperatures, 1.5 million plankton DNA sequences taken from samples, and biochemical data.

“We found that temperature plays a critical role in driving the cycling of chemicals in marine micro-algae. It affects these reactions as much as nutrients and light, which was not known before,” said Dr Mock.

“Under warmer temperatures, marine micro-algae do not seem to produce as many ribosomes as under lower temperatures. Ribosomes join up the building blocks of proteins in cells. They are rich in phosphorus and if they are being reduced, this will produce higher ratios of nitrogen compared to phosphorus, increasing the demand for nitrogen in the oceans. “This will eventually lead to a greater prevalence of blue-green algae called cyanobacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen,” he added.

Acidification

CO2 in the atmosphere has increased from 278 ppm in pre-industrial times to 390 ppm today. During this time, the amount of CO2 dissolved in the ocean has risen by more than 30%, decreasing the pH of the ocean by 0.11 units. As with CO2 and global warming, there is some lag between cause and effect. That means that, even if all carbon emissions stopped today, we are committed to a further drop of up to 0.1 units.

CO2  dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. (It is worth noting that carbonic acid is what eats out limestone caves from our mountains.) In the oceans, carbonic acid releases hydrogen ions (H+), reducing pH, and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). 

CO2 + H2O => H+ +HCO3–     (1)

The additional hydrogen ions released by carbonic acid bind to carbonate ions (CO32-), forming additional HCO3.

H+ + CO32- => HCO3–     (2)

This reduces the concentration of CO32-, making it harder for marine creatures to take up CO32- to form the calcium carbonate needed to build their exoskeletons.

Ca2+ + CO32- => CaCO3   (3)

The two main forms of calcium carbonate used by marine creatures are calcite and aragonite. Decreasing the amount of carbonate ions in the water makes conditions more difficult for both calcite users (phytoplankton, foraminifera and coccolithophore algae), and aragonite users (corals, shellfish, pteropods and heteropods).

Now a report from NOAA scientists found large quantities of water undersaturated in aragoniteare already upwelling close to the Pacific continental shelf from Vancouver to northern California. Although the study only dealt with the area, the authors suggest that other shelf areas may be experiencing similar effects. 

For corals like those in Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, the outlook is grim. They are threatened with destruction on two fronts, both caused by CO2 emissions. Not only do increased ocean temperatures bleach coral by forcing them to expel the algae which supplies them with energy (see photo at left), but increased ocean CO2 reduces the availability of aragonite from which reefs are made.

To conclude

Considering the impact of Temperature and Acidification over aquatic environments, should we add plastic polymers as a threat to the aquatic biota connected with the chemistry of our oceans and, subsequently, with the role that they play in atmospheric processes?

Captain Charles Moore on the seas of plastic

New Maps Document Floating Plastic Trash

Tens of thousands of tons of plastic garbage float on the surface waters in the world’s oceans, according to researchers who mapped giant accumulation zones of trash in all five subtropical ocean gyres. Ocean currents act as “conveyor belts,” researchers say, carrying debris into massive convergence zones that are estimated to contain millions of plastic items per square kilometer in their inner cores.

Map shows plastic debris in surface water of world's oceans. Created in-house by Jamie Hawk (Ryan Morris).

NG STAFF, JAMIE HAWK. SOURCE: ANDRÉS COZAR, UNIVERSITY OF CÁDIZ, SPAIN
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About Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

Citing This Site "Title", published online "Month"+"Year", retrieved on "Month""Day", "Year" from http://www.diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com. By Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. More guidance on citing this web as a source can be found at NASA webpage: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/bibliography/citations#! DOIs can be generated on demand by request by email: d.fdezsevilla(at)gmail.com for those publications missing at the ResearchGate profile vinculated with this project. Author´s profile: Bachelor in General Biology, Masters degree "Licenciado" in Environmental Sciences (2001, Spain). PhD in Aerobiology (2007, UK). Lived, acquired training and worked in Spain, UK, Germany and Poland. I have shared the outcome from my previous work as scientific speaker in events held in those countries as well as in Switzerland and Finland. After couple of years performing research and working in institutions linked with environmental research and management, I find myself in a period of transition searching for a new position or funding to support my research. In the present competitive scenario, instead of just moving my cv and wait for my next opportunity to arrive, I have decided to invest also my energy and time in opening my own line of research showing what I am capable of. The value of the data and the original nature of the research presented in this blog has proved to be worthy of consideration by the scientific community as well as for publication in scientific journals. However, without a position as member of an institution, it becomes very challenging to be published. I hope that this handicap do not overshadow the value of my work and the intellectual rights represented by the license of attribution attached are respected and considered by the scientist involved in this line of research. Any comment and feedback aimed to be constructive is welcome. In this blog I publish pieces of research focused on addressing relevant environmental questions. Furthermore, I try to break the barrier that academic publications very often offer isolating scientific findings from the general public. In that way I address those topics which I am familiar with, thanks to my training in environmental research, making them available throughout my posts. (see "Framework and Timeline" for a complete index). At this moment, 2017, I am living in Spain with no affiliation attachments. Free to relocate geographically worldwide. If you feel that I could be a contribution to your institution, team and projects don´t hesitate in contact me at d.fdezsevilla (at) gmail.com or consult my profile at LinkedIn, ResearchGate and Academia.edu. Also, I'd appreciate information about any opportunity that you might know and believe it could match with my aptitudes. The conclusions and ideas expressed in each post as part of my own creativity are part of my Intellectual Portfolio and are protected by Intellectual Property Laws. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial conditions. In citing my work from this website, be sure to include the date of access. (c)Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD, 2017. Filling in or Finding Out the gaps around. Publication accessed 20YY-MM-DD at http://www.diegofdezsevilla.wordpress.com/
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24 Responses to Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules (polymers), affect oceans functions as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation…? (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD)

  1. (comments from LinkedIn members. Names are kept anonymous for privacy reasons unless pointed otherwise by the author)

    Meteorologist at DOC/NOAA/OAR/AOML

    Don’t know, but I saw a program on NatGeo channel yesterday where a submersible robot in deep water off Indonesia found an area covered with trash, including a lot of plastic, in 10000′ of water. That means that a significant fraction of the trash thrown in the sea winds up on the bottom somewhere. Plastic broken into tiny pieces also can be ingested by jellyfish, then by creatures that prey on them, & so forth, so I also think ocean dumping of waste should be stopped.

    (myself) Diego Fernández Sevilla, Ph.D.
    Aerobiologist and Environmental Research Analyst in active job search mode worldwide
    Top Contributor

    Thanks Robert. The impact of plastic waste in the chain food is been documented and it is scary to see what it has been found. From zooplankton ingesting plastic all the way up in the food chain. “Plastic pieces can attract and hold hydrophobic elements like PCB and DDT up to one million times background levels. As a result, floating plastic is like a poison pill…” — Algalita Marine Research Foundation

    But, additionally, Phytoplanktons, including micro-algae, are responsible for half of the carbon dioxide that is naturally removed from the atmosphere. As well as being vital to climate control, it also creates enough oxygen for every other breath we take. Even though it has been demonstrated the poisoning effect over the biota of many substances found in seawater I have not found any research addressing the impact of plastic degradation into Phytoplankton’s performance.

    Fisheries Biologist, Natural Resource Management Professional, and Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Advocate.

    I was glad to see the article calling attention to the problem of ocean acidification. I think ocean acidification is frequently overlooked as both a cause and effect of accelerating climate change. The deposition of plastics into marine ecosystems interferes with the sequestration of CO2 by aquatic plants and microorganisms, and disrupts other marine biological processes, trophic interactions, and ecosystem services. The oceans cannot absorb CO2 at the ever-increasing rate that humanity pumps it into the atmosphere (an estimated 36 Billion tonnes in 2013)* and as a result, atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise. Excessive concentrations of CO2, which reacts with H2O to form carbonic acid, are causing the average pH of seawater to decrease, changing the biochemistry of marine organisms which are responsible for uptake and sequestration of CO2. Researchers including NOAA’s Dr. Richard A. Feely have seen impacts from ocean acidification on the ability of shellfish and corals to form their exoskeletal structures, and changes in pH have a profound effect on the reproductive fecundity of many marine fish species.** These effects present added consequences for the commercial fishing industry, international food supplies, and the global economy, not to mention disruption of the marine food web. This dangerous cycle is driving itself at an exponential rate, with climate change driving ocean acidification, and acidification exacerbating climate change. Introducing plastic pollutants into this cycle accelerates it even further, and with society’s great dependence on plastic products and apparent complacency with treating the oceans like the world’s largest landfill, I can see no end in sight. In concert with increased emissions standards and the advancement of renewable energy technologies, stricter laws must be in place to enforce a prohibition on the disposal of plastics at-sea, and address the virtual absence of enforcement outside of territorial waters. Policy tools must incentivize the responsible disposal and recycling of plastic products, not just at the local or national level, but as part of an ambitious international policy initiative. Perhaps we must go so far as to ban the use and/or manufacture of disposable plastic products like water bottles, grocery bags, and other packaging containers. Such measures will not be successfully implemented without stiff resistance from industries and their political frontmen, but they are the bitter pill which will help stave off climate change and the collapse of entire marine ecosystems.

    Helping people when they need it

    WeDontNeedNoStink-in-Water.org has been established to address and CLEAN UP the plastics and pollutions in our oceans. Their goal is to establish an endowment fund that pays for equipment, resources and personnel to be placed around the globe. These resources will physically remove plastics/pollutants from the waters and dispose or recycle them.
    What a great idea!! Go to FB at– We Don’t Need No Stink In Water. This is their community page. Add your voice, show you want to help. They have just started and can use experienced administrators and team players.
    They WILL make a difference!! Their first order of business is to put resources in the Pacific debris field. Who wants clean water?
    email at WeCare@wedontneednostink-in-water.org

    Like

  2. Donald Rapp says:

    If the albedo of the ocean is increased by debris, that cannot “increase” retention of heat by the ocean. It would decrease retention of heat by the ocean.

    Like

  3. Thanks Donald for your comment.
    My point about albedo comes from the fact that plastic debris is all along the vertical column of water. In that case, light would be reflected in the three dimensions around the plastic amplifying the effect of albedo inside the body of water. I would assume that this situation would increase the amount of solar radiation being absorb by the surrounding water, but I haven´t found any study looking at this.

    The report, titled “The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris,” conducted by scientists at the Universities of Washington and Delaware along with the Sea Education Association, claims that research has just barely touched on the issue of plastic debris in the ocean, but at the very least, the scientific community is severely underestimating the amount of plastic build up at sea.

    Among the recent findings, researchers discovered that certain oceanic elements can actually push plastic down deep below the surface where it likely goes unnoticed unlike the Great Pacific Garbage Patch—the Texas-sized island of floating plastic several thousand miles off of California’s coast that has brought attention to the issue.

    After witnessing plastic disappear with wind gusts while out on the ocean, researcher Giora Proskurowski of the University of Washington took samples from 16 feet and as deep as 100 feet below the ocean’s surface where plastic was discovered despite not being visible from the ocean surface. Proskurowski compared his findings with research from the 1990s and early 2000s taken by the Sea Education Association and found that virtually all of the samples by comparison contained plastic “regardless of the depth.”

    Like

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  13. From the About section in this blog I believe that this comment is better located here for others interested in the subject to see and comment.

    Xosé Manuel Barros Hermida says:
    December 22, 2015 at 20:30 (Edit)
    Dear Mr. Fdez. Sevilla :
    My name is Xosé Manuel Barros. I am cofounder of the association Mar de Fábula. Our objective is to clean the sea. For this purpose we have to remove all the marine litter washed-up on shore in order to prevent it goes to the sea again. The 90 % of all marine litter we work with are plastics In all forms and compositions. In a second stage we pretend to clean the sea directly by using some sort of boats or barges with some appliance to catch the plastic both on surface and the water column. Our current field of work is the Coast of Death, Galicia..
    I have read with interest your article… could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules affects oceans functions as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation ?……
    On account of your findings, may we consider that the presence of plastics in the oceans is an additional factor to the increase of temperature in the planet ?
    If this is so, I do feel quite grateful to you because you have given me the key to back and justify our efforts. We are doing the right thing.. “we do our job”.. as the colibri of the tale said to the other animals…..
    I would receive with thanks some comment form your side on this regards. I would like very much to be in contact with you.
    I send you my best wishes.
    Xosé Manuel Barros
    P.D. In order to have an idea about us, kindly visit our web: http://www.mardefabula.org and the facebook Mar de Fábula.

    Like

    • Dear Manuel,
      I am glad that you have found interesting my publication.

      As you can see in my blog, through my publications, in one hand I am trying to justify the gaps of knowledge still waiting to be addressed on environmental issues and even sometimes I bring my own research to fill out such gaps.
      In the publication that you mentioned from my blog I addressed one situation affecting our oceans:
      -“Could plastic debris, coarse, fine and molecules affects oceans functions as climate regulator, CO2 sink, albedo, evaporation?”
      I looked into “ocean’s functions as climate regulator”
      When you ask:
      “On account of your findings, may we consider that the presence of plastics in the oceans is an additional factor to the increase of temperature in the planet?”
      Your question incorporates many questions in itself. The increase in the temp in the planet is different in different zones as well as the distribution of plastic in the oceans.
      What you can read in my article is what I think about plastic interfering with the functions of the Ocean as Climate regulator. At least, so far.
      I don´t think that you need any “key to back-up and justify efforts reducing plastic waste in the Oceans or at any other part of an ecosystem. Waste always interferes with the cycles driving the functionality of the environment. Sometimes is chemically active waste and other times is inert material blocking access to resources what causes environmental deterioration.
      On account of my findings I can tell that our terrestrial and aquatic environments perform in feedback loops with our atmospheric conditions, thus weather and climate. So any alteration on one of those parts has an effect over the other.

      I hope my comments help you somehow. And thanks for your effort helping to maintain and restore the quality of our oceans with your activities.

      Have a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.

      Diego.

      Like

  14. 6th January 2016
    Dear Diego,
    I thank you for your comments on my previous message.
    When I say…. You have given me the key to back and justify our efforts… I mean that your studies are of help to me to give a scientific background to my talks to a street-level message when we have a meeting or when we make a public call for an action to beach clean-up, something that we try to do on a monthly basis. Our goal is to convince society that removing plastic debris from the ocean is also an effective tool at our hand to fight against the Global Warming. I do beleive that despite the big speeches made at the Paris Climate Conference, nothing will be reached unless, we the normal people make up our minds to assume our own responsability to take care for the future of the planet.
    I can see your point about albedo when you say the plastic debris all along the water column would reflect the light amplifying the effect of refraction inside the body of water, inducing the retention of more heat. This is a clear and strong argument to remove plastic debris directly in the sea. This is particularly important at the coasts of Galicia where most of the plastic debris is inside the water column or floating at surface, just waiting for the big storms to throw it on shore.
    Your questioning about what would happen if plastic degradation reduces the aquating biota involved in fixing CO2 it is also of paramount importance as most of plastic debris in the oceans is already in the form of microplastics impossible to remove. This would put an additional pressure to speed up cleaning of the oceans to avoid the coarse plastic peaces to reach the microplastics stage.
    I´d like to tell you that we have a project to get some premises by the seaside at the Coast of Death where we could store all the plastic litter removed from the sea. There, it would be classified : One part would be reused in artistic workshops, another part would be recycled for the industry, and the remaining would be sent to safe destruction as being much polluted. There would be also some other theoretical activities concerning preservation of the marine environment.
    I wish you a happy new year.
    Xosé Manuel Barros
    Mar de Fábula

    Like

  15. Camelle, 27th March 2016
    Dear Diego,
    Just having a look to the news microplastic.wordpress.com, I have found an article that connects with your question… “could plastic polymers interfere with biota involved in fixing CO2 in our oceans…? The investigation has the title: ” Do plastic particles affect microalgae photosynthesis and growth ?” Here there is a paragraph concluding that microalgae growth is negatively affected by uncharged polystyrene particles.The highest effect the smaller the particles size…
    Authors are: Sasacha B. Sjolleme, Heather A. Leslie and others..Dated January 2016.
    I hope this can be of interest to you.
    Best regards
    Xosé Manuel Barros
    Cofounder Mar de Fabula.

    Like

    • Thanks Xosé,
      Since when I wrote this article in 2014, it has received a lot of attention with visits from institutions around the world. I am glad that new studies are emerging looking specifically into this issue.
      Thanks for the information. I will look into their findings.
      I appreciate your feedback.

      Like

  16. Dear Diego,
    I wonder if you happen to be by A Coruña area some day this month. We have an exposition of artistic works made out of marine litter at the instalations of CEIDA, Castelo de Santa Cruz, Oleiros.
    Taking this exhibition as a background, we shall hold the first ” Encontro galego arredor do lixo mariño e das crebas”. We will be 6 persons discussing about marine litter and our experiences of cleaning up beaches during long time along the galician coasts. This “encontro”will take place on the 21 st july at 1800 hours.
    It would be a pleasure for us to welcome you there if not on the 21st, any day this month. Any comment or suggestion from your side would be of great value for us.
    Looking forward to hearing from you,
    best wishes
    Xosé Manuel Barros
    Mar de Fábula

    Like

    • Dear Xosé Manuel,

      I am afraid that I don´t have scheduled any trip to A Coruña. Actually, since I am in a transition period without economic support (doing independent research on my blog for more than a year already), I have to restrict my expenditures and I don´t have scheduled any travel anywhere (not even for holidays) in order to save money in case I have to go to a job interview either in Spain or abroad.

      However, I can always share my thoughts with you by email or even by telephone. Also, if you happen to come to Ourense I will be glad on arranging some time to have some coffee and talk anytime.

      I deeply appreciate your interest and I hope that you understand my situation.

      Best Regards,

      Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

      Like

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  20. Dear Diego,
    I was just having a look to your blog now when I had the surprise to see our coloured whale surging over the words… I thank you very much indeed for your pingback .. “Every little counts” whereby you are referring to our association Mar de Fábula. I felt really moved to read it.
    We will start quite soon the autumn & winter season to harvest marine litter washed up all along the Coast of Death beaches. The first clean up we are facing now will be at the large beach of Baldaio ( about 4.000 m. long) It will be on the 25th of september. We will organize this environmental action in coordination with the Fundación Biodiversidad and Decathlon.We are working now on all details concerning this clean up.
    I hope things are improving for you and your works as Environmental Scientific are being recognized and paid.
    I wish you all my best
    Xosé Manuel Barros
    Mar de Fábula

    Liked by 1 person

    • Dear Xosé,
      Thanks for your comment.
      It is my pleasure to offer what I have in order to make a contribution to your work. At the moment I haven´t found yet the economic support that I need, so even thought I can not invest money in your cause, I can offer space in my blog to highlight the value of your work.

      Best Regards,
      Diego.

      Like

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