USA. SEHIC established a workgroup to determine indicators of climate change recognizing Pollen as one Environmental Health Indicator for Climate Change (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

USA. SEHIC established a workgroup to determine indicators of climate change recognizing Pollen as one Environmental Health Indicator for Climate Change (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

(Updated 06/08/2014)

The State Environmental Public Health Indicators Collaborative (SEHIC) is a Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) initiative that focuses on the development of indicators and tools to enhance environmental health surveillance capacity within USA state public health agencies. SEHIC works to enhance environmental health surveillance by identifying priority environmental health concerns and the appropriate data resources and methods for indicator development.

Since 2000, the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program has begun to enhance environmental health surveillance capacity nationally and among state health departments by encouraging the linkage of environmental and public health monitoring data using standardized, systematic methods.

SEHIC has established a process, produced a framework, and created a vision for developing environmental public health indicators for use at the state level, which includes standard language, definitions, and consistent description templates for defining the elements and attributes of indicators. The description templates are accompanied by how-to guides to show exactly how to calculate the measures being generated to describe the indicators.

(Click the links below to view the environmental health indicators)

Air Quality

Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution causes significant public health impacts in the U.S. Exposure to criteria air pollutants (i.e., ozone, particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and lead) and toxic or hazardous air contaminants (e.g., benzene, perchlorethlyene, and methylene chloride) have been related to acute and chronic health conditions as diverse as respiratory illness, reduced lung function, cancer, heart disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes. A 2002 analysis found that a 10% reduction of PM and ozone in Santiago, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and New York over next 20 years would avoid 64,000 premature deaths, 65,000 chronic bronchitis cases, and 37 million person days of work loss (Cifuentes et al, 2002). Recently, the EPA has been mandated to regulate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas that causes global warming. Increases in heat due to CO2 emissions and global warming also create conditions which favor raised ozone levels in urban areas, furthering public health impacts.

Completed Indicators: These indicators, which are standardized and can be compared across states, can be used to detect trends over time, to identify geographic areas in need of improvement, and as a basis for influencing environmental public health policy.


Completed indicators include asthma inpatient hospitalization, asthma emergency department visits, and chronic lower respiratory disease indicators. Each indicator includes a template and how-to guide. The template describes the rationale for the indicator, and the how-to guide includes step-by-step instructions on how to calculate the indicator. An Excel spreadsheet can be used to compute age-adjusted prevalence rates for the two indicators. A lessons learned summary document describes the process that was followed by the Asthma Workgroup in developing the indicators.

A new initiative of the CSTE/SEHIC Asthma work group is surveillance of pollen and its relationship to respiratory conditions, such as asthma, in the United States. Increased pollen levels contribute to missed work and school days, more asthma emergency department visits, and the use of over-the-counter medication to treat allergic rhinitis. Climate change effects of higher temperatures and more carbon dioxide will result in increased pollen production, especially for more allergenic types of pollen such as ragweed, and longer pollen seasons. Current pollen activities include:

  • A 2012 CSTE Conference poster demonstrating differences in the date when the pollen season started, date it ended and the duration of the pollen season for pollen readings made in Atlanta, GA, Baltimore, MD and Madison, WI.
  • Pollen data manuscript now in preparation. It will include pollen data for Atlanta, Baltimore, Madison, Michigan and Maine.

Climate Change

Background: Current literature documents the potential adverse human health impacts presented by climate change. For this reason, the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative (SEHIC) established a workgroup to determine indicators of climate and health for state health departments. SEHIC began with a comprehensive review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions related to climate variability that could inform recommendations about the development of a suite of climate and health indicators. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. The work group recognized that indicators are needed to measure current vulnerability to climate variability and change. Indicators are also needed to track possible changes in health outcomes to determine if climate change is actually affecting their state, local, or regional population.

Indicator Pilot: The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists climate change subcommittee developed 24 climate and health indicators including instructions on how to calculate each indicator and a template to facilitate organizing and recording the data. Each indicator’s description and accompanying instructions were pilot tested in 2011 and 2012 to improve and finalize the implementing instructions and to generate multistate data for each indicator. With the results from these pilots, CSTE finalized the climate and health indicator documents.

Completed Indicators: Some indicators are measures of environmental variables that either directly or indirectly can affect human health, such as maximum and minimum temperature extremes. Other indicators can be used to project future health impacts based on changes in exposure, assuming exposure-response relationships remain constant over temporal and spatial scales.

What makes pollen a relevant bio-indicator?

SEHIC Environmental Indicator Pollen Template


Pollen can adversely influence health outcomes such as allergies and asthma however, I miss to see more inside research applied in using the atmospheric load of biological particular matter not only as the hazardous matter we are exposed to but also as the symptom indicating the health state of our environment. After all, we can look into how we are going to react towards changes in our environment, but I wonder if we are missing valuable information about how our biological environment is reacting already by simply overlooking the symptoms. Climate change has been linked to longer pollen seasons, increased pollen production, changes in the types of pollen observed in a particular location, and increased pollen allergenicity.

I think it would be of great help to reach the point where we could be able of identifying the health state of a ecosystem by looking into the nature, quantity and quality of the atmospheric load generated by/within it. It has been already identified that environmental pressure from anthropogenic activities induce higher pollen allergenicity due to stress triggering alterations in protein composition, as well as the interaction of elevated pollen levels with other respiratory triggers (SOx, NOx, and DEPs) from air pollution.

One of the focus points I try to highlight is the need for more inside research applied in using the atmospheric load of biological particular matter not only to characterize the level of concentration for the hazardous matter we are exposed to but also to identify the health state of an environment. In EEUU it seems that pollen has been recognized as an element from which to obtain information for environmental research meanwhile in Europe the directive for Air quality avoids considering pollen as an air pollutant relevant to be monitored since it is not “man made”.

I can tell though that pollen, being a male gametophyte, reflects the state of health in the metabolism of plants as you could identify also in any biological organism with sexual reproduction (i.e. humans). Situations of stress, over stimulation, malnutrition and exposure to pollutants affect the quantity, quality and viability of pollen grains (like humans). Same as finding mold in your house is indicative of an unhealthy environment for humans, the aerobiological load found in a location could tell the state of your environment throughout knowing the kind and conditions in which organisms and plants are living in your neighbourhood.

If you want to find out more about this project follow the link : Environmental Health: Indicators

Update July 2014:

Publication: Developing climate change environmental public health indicators : guidance for local health departments

Publication: Developing climate change environmental public health indicators: guidance for local health departments

In September 2013 Adele Houghton, the  Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative Climate Change Subcommittee published the document: “Developing climate change environmental public health indicators : guidance for local health departments”.

Climate change EPHI frameworks have been developed at the state level by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists’ (CSTE) State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative (SEHIC) (available at: and at the federal level by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Environmental Health Tracking Network (NEHTN) (available at: The purpose of this guidance document is to help LHDs leverage existing resources such as the SEHIC and NEHTN climate change indicators for use at the local level.

This guidance document outlines a three-tiered approach to establishing a local climate change environmental public health tracking (EPHT) program — placing emphasis on opportunities to partner with external resources at the local, state, and federal levels. It also explains how climate and health tracking programs can support LHDs’ efforts to provide the 10 Essential Services of Public Health and to achieve accreditation.

This document is not designed to establish the links between climate change and human health or to provide guidance about how to launch a climate and health program. Furthermore, it does not offer specific technical information about how to conduct geospatial analysis or downscaled climate modeling. Instead, it is designed to assist LHDs in making use of existing climate change EPHI frameworks using current capacity. For readers who are interested in delving into greater detail, links to more specific information are included throughout the document.

About Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD.

Data policy The products processed by "Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD" are made available to the public for educational and/or scientific purposes, without any fee on the condition that you credit "Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD" as the source. Copyright notice: © Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD 2013-2019 orcid: and the link to its source at diegofdezsevilla.wordpress or permanent DOI found at Reearchgate. Profile and verified scientific activity also at: Should you write any scientific publication on the results of research activities that use Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD products as input, you shall acknowledge the Diego Fdez-Sevilla's PhD Project in the text of the publication and provide an electronic copy of the publication ( If you wish to use the Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD products in advertising or in any commercial promotion, you shall acknowledge the Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD Project and you must submit the layout to Diego Fdez-Sevilla PhD for approval beforehand ( The work here presented has no economic or institutional support. Please consider to make a donation to support the means for making sustainable the energy, time and resources required. Also any sponsorship or mentoring interested would be welcome. Intellectual Property This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. By Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD. More guidance on citing this web as a source can be found at NASA webpage:! For those publications missing at the ResearchGate profile vinculated with this project DOIs can be generated on demand by request at email: d.fdezsevilla(at) **Author´s profile: Born in 1974. Bachelor in General Biology, Masters degree "Licenciado" in Environmental Sciences (2001, Spain). PhD in Aerobiology (2007, UK). Lived, acquired training and worked in Spain, UK, Germany and Poland. I have shared the outcome from my work previous to 2013 as scientific speaker in events held in those countries as well as in Switzerland and Finland. After 12 years performing research and working in institutions linked with environmental research and management, in 2013 I found myself in a period of transition searching for a new position or funding to support my own line of research. In the current competitive scenario, in order to demonstrate my capacities instead of just moving my cv waiting for my next opportunity to arrive, I decided to invest my energy and time in opening my own line of research sharing it in this blog. In March 2017 the budget reserved for this project has ended and its weekly basis time frame discontinued until new forms of economic and/or institutional support are incorporated into the project. The value of the data and the original nature of the research presented in this platform and at LinkedIn has proved to be worthy of consideration by the scientific community as well as for publication in scientific journals. However, without a position as member of an institution, it becomes very challenging to be published. I hope that this handicap do not overshadow the value of my achievements and that the Intellectual Property Rights generated with the license of attribution attached are respected and considered by the scientist involved in similar lines of research. **Any comment and feedback aimed to be constructive is welcome as well as any approach exploring professional opportunities.** In this blog I publish pieces of research focused on addressing relevant environmental questions. Furthermore, I try to break the barrier that academic publications very often offer isolating scientific findings from the general public. In that way I address those topics which I am familiar with, thanks to my training in environmental research, making them available throughout my posts. (see "Framework and Timeline" for a complete index). At this moment, 2019, I am living in Spain with no affiliation attachments. Free to relocate geographically worldwide. If you feel that I could be a contribution to your institution, team and projects, don´t hesitate in contact me at d.fdezsevilla (at) or consult my profile at LinkedIn, ResearchGate and Also, I'd appreciate information about any opportunity that you might know and believe it could match with my aptitudes. The conclusions and ideas expressed in each post as part of my own creativity are part of my Intellectual Portfolio and are protected by Intellectual Property Laws. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial conditions. In citing my work from this website, be sure to include the date of access and DOIs found at the Framework and Timeline page and ResearchGate. (c)Diego Fdez-Sevilla, PhD, 2018. Filling in or/and Finding Out the gaps around. Publication accessed 20YY-MM-DD at ***
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3 Responses to USA. SEHIC established a workgroup to determine indicators of climate change recognizing Pollen as one Environmental Health Indicator for Climate Change (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla)

  1. Pingback: Press Release: “Effects of air pollution on European ecosystems” EEA report. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) | diego fdez-sevilla

  2. Pingback: Effects of ecosystem’s degradation on natural air pollutants. (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) | diego fdez-sevilla

  3. Pingback: WHO Europe. Developing Indicators of climate change: pollen (by Diego Fdez-Sevilla) | diego fdez-sevilla

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